sindh class 9 pakistan studies notes chapter 9 education in pakistan

Sindh Class 9 Pakistan Studies Notes Chapter 9 Education in Pakistan

Education in Pakistan Sindh Class 9 Pakistan Studies Notes Chapter 9 short long question, means, multiple-choice question, and PDf Download best quality format.

Education in Pakistan Sindh Class 9 Pakistan Studies Notes

i) No real progress is possible without__________ .

ii) ______________ is responsible for the preparation and developmem of textbooks in Sindh.dh.

iiiThe first step of formal system of Education in Pakistan is

iv) Compulsory Primary Education Act was enforced in the year____________ .

v) First Educational Conference in Pakistan was held in the year_______

Answer

  1. Education
  2. Textbook Boards
  3. Primary level
  4. 2004-05
  5. 1947

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Describe the importance of education in the development of a country.

Education is a fundamental factor in the process of human development. Education is a social instrument through which man can guide his destiny and shape his future. The word “Education” has a Greek root. It has been derived from the word “educer,” which means to know or to learn. Aristotle defines education as:

“A Process necessary for the creation of a sound mind in a sound body.”

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Thus, Education is defined as “the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge and of developing the powers of reasoning and judgment.”

Importance of education in the Development of a Country:

Education plays an essential part in developing human capital and accelerating productivity in any country. The impact of education spending on economic growth is one of the critical problems in economic literature. Many economic growth models and theories have been developed, overtime related to education and economic growth. Human capital is measured by the skills of the labour force, health, education level, experience, training, and some other factors. It is considered a tool for economic advancement. The importance of education in developing a country is:

  • It helped humankind to pass through many stages of evolution and reached the present age of science and high technology.
  • It helped humankind to conquer the forces of nature on the earth and explored some secrets of space.
  • It helps in understanding the ideology of a nation and suggests ways to strengthen this ideology.
  • It develops nationhood and patriotism among the individuals and the community.
  • It helps in understanding the rights and duties of a citizen to perform his or her role for the welfare and progress of society.
  • It helps in developing the creative abilities of people to accelerate the process of health and constructive change in society.
  • Education plays an important role in the development of the economic setup of a country. It can promote the industry of Pakistan, which can help in alleviating poverty.
  • It helps to understand that educational development and economic progress are linked with each other. With a high standard of education, more skilled people will be produced who will work for the progress and development of the country.
  • Education is the basis of the building of a sound character. It crushes negative emotions in man and cultivates positive values.
  • It helps in the optimum utilization and exploitation of natural resources.

Conclusion:

Education plays an important role in the political constancy, economic progress, and social evolution of a nation. It has a universally positive effect on all forms of tasks because it works as a driving force in the development process of a country, which makes the economy more competitive and innovative.

The government should focus on the quantity and quality of education that, in turn, leads to more research in the country. In conclusion, education is beneficial for society overall.

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Highlight the important aspects of education as mentioned in the National Education Policy 1998-2010.

Pakistan Education Policy:
Education is a fundamental factor in the process of human development. Educated people are aware of the socio-economic scenario of the country and can help in the progress of the country. The importance of education is evident from the Education policies introduced by the government in different periods. Many educational The children have been for in the country since its independence in 1947, i.e.

  1. Educational Conference 1947
  2. Report of the Commission on National Education 1959
  3. Education Policy 1972-80
  4. Education Policy 1978
  5. National Education Policy 1998-2010

1)    Educational Conference 1947:

All the Educational policies from 1947 to 1998, emphasized the promotion of literacy, universal primary education, improvement in the quality of education, science and technical education. The government also set high targets for improving the quality of teacher training, improvement in the textbook and the examination and evaluation system, improving primary education and literacy rate, however, in reality, those targets could not be achieved.

2)    Report of the Commission on National Education 1959:

The second Education Policy Program, i.e. National Education Commission Report 1959 emphasized religious education, the equal expansion for girls and boys, training of manpower, and educated citizens.

3)    Education Policy 1972-80:

The important aspect of Education Policy 1972-80 was the nationalization of private institutions but it damaged the system of education. Therefore, another Educational policy was devised in 1978.

4)    Education Policy 1978:

In the year 1978, the teaching of Islamiat and Pakistan Studies was made compulsory from class IX to degree level. During this period, the Social Action Programs and Literacy Commission were also started for the improvement of education by opening new schools for female children and spreading literacy in the country. Nevertheless, in practice, the objectives of education could not be achieved as per targets set in the policies due to a meagre allocation of funds, defective supervisions, and mismanagement of the educational institutions. Moreover, the Private sector was ignored and was kept away to share in the promotion of education. The examination system suffered from several malpractices. Therefore, the government decided to prepare a comprehensive Education Policy to meet the challenges of the modern world. In this perspective, National Education Policy 1998-2010, was enforced in the country finally.

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5)    National Education Policy 1998-2010:

Education is essential for social and economic development. Therefore, proper investment in the field of education is a bad way to improve human resources, social and economic development. The government of Pakistan launched a “National Education Policy” Programme in 1998-2010. The main objectives and aspects of this policy are:

  1. Education will be accessible to all citizens because it is the right of every individual citizen of Pakistan.
  2. All possible formal and non-formal means will be used to eradicate illiteracy. By the year 2010, the gross enrolment of children in the primary age group (5-9) will rise to 105%.
  3. The Compulsory Primary Education Act has been promulgated and enforced from the year 2004-05.
  4. The separate stream of Matric (Technical) will be added to general education for those who plan to pursue higher education. Facilities for technical education will be increased including the undertaking of training programs for the training of technical and vocational teachers to cope with the increasing demand for teachers.
  5. Technological and scientific knowledge will be one year by introducing computer education as a subject at secondary and above level. The opportunities will be provided for technical teaching.
  6. The existing capacity of teacher training institutions shall be fully utilized. The quality of teacher education programs will be raised by prescribing the qualification of primary teachers from Matric to Intermediate. Two parallel programs of FA/F.Sc. Education and B.A. /B.Sc. Education has. The curricula of teacher education will be revised to bring it at par with other programs in the region.
  7. Education Foundations have to provide financial assistance to the private sector for opening non-commercial educational institutions, especially in rural areas.
  8. A District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure public participation in the monitoring and implementation of all educational programs.
  9. The national budget for education will be increased from 2.2% to 4% of the total national income.
  10. To promote sports and games from the grassroots at all the tiers of the education system.

Conclusion:

Education is indispensable to economic development. Therefore, a balanced education system promotes not only economic development, but also promotes productivity, and generates individual income per capita. However, proper planning is required to utilize the power of education. Therefore, many policies were implemented in the country after the independence of Pakistan for the progress of the individuals and the country but most of them could not achieve their targets due to certain conditions. The Education Policy of 1998-2010 is the only education policy, which enforces unconditionally in the country and succeeds in achieving most of its targets, and goals. 

Q.3) Mention the Socio-cultural importance of education.

Answer:
The term “socio” implies everything, which is related to “society.” Society is meant as, “a particular broad group of people who share beliefs, customs, laws, and institutions.

” While culture is defined as “the sum-total of customs, beliefs, and all other products of human thought by a particular group of people.”

Therefore, a cultured man is defined as “a person having a good education and refined social behaviour.” Thus, Education preserves the culture and transmits the culture from one generation to the next. There are several customs and traditions, which are contrary to Islamic teachings and values, for example, air shooting at the time of marriages, and the use of drugs and alcohol etc. In other words, cultural values can only be purposeful if people have a certain level of education.

Art, poetry, literature, and music cannot be appreciated without education. Moreover, the wealth of a country alone cannot raise the standard of cultural life but it is the education, which makes the people cultured and civilized. Therefore, education is an essential element of change in society, attitude, behaviour, and way of living.

Q.4) Describe the structure of formal education in Pakistan?

Answer:
The education system is becoming the most important basic need of the Developing countries. The system of education includes all institutions that are involved in delivering formal education e.g. public and private, onsite or virtual instruction and their faculties, students, physical infrastructure, resources, and rules. Therefore, the Federal Ministry of Education has the overall responsibility for the development and coordination of national education policies, plans, and programs including curriculum development, while implementation of the policies is the responsibility of the local administration. Moreover, the National Education Policy and Implementation Program (1979) has declared that a minimum level of education for all citizens is not only a basic human right but also is imperative for conscious participation of the masses in the development process of a sovereign nation. It has also declared that education would be made free and universal up to grade 10.

Formal Education System:
The formal system of education is defined as “the provision of education by establishing different educational institutions, prescribing textbooks, appointing teachers, establishing a system of examination and awarding certificates and degrees.”  Thus, Formal education corresponds to a systematic, organized education model and techniques chosen and applied through teaching institutions, which presents a rather rigid curriculum as regards the objectives, content, and methodology. It means that formal education has a well-defined set of features. The stages of formal education in Pakistan are Primary, middle, secondary and higher secondary stages are the initial steps in the learning process in which the learner receives the basic introduction of a concept while the other stages are the higher standard which enables the learner for practical learning.

1)    Primary Stage:
Formal education in Pakistan starts at the primaryCountriesfull-time level. Primary education is provided by public and private schools as well as by Islamic madrasas. These institutions are well distributed throughout the rural and urban areas of all the four provinces of Pakistan as well as the federally administered and tribal areas. Primary education comprises Grades I-V and its total duration is 5 years. The language of instruction is Urdu, English or the regional language. The curriculum includes Urdu, English, mathematics, arts, science, social studies, Islamiat, and sometimes computer studies, which is subject to the availability of a computer laboratory. The government of Pakistan is trying to increase the net enrollment in primary education.

2)    Middle Stage:
Middle schools are institutions in which children receive middle stages of education. In Pakistan, middle education starts from class 6 to class 8. Its duration is 3 years and certificates are issued by the school after passing the middle stage. The subjects included in the scheme of middle school are regional languages, Urdu, English, Algebra, Geometry, Science, Social Sciences, and Islamiat.

3)    Secondary Stage:
Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. The High schools in Pakistan usually include grades 9 and 10. The students are required to pass a national examination administered by a regional Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education (BISE). At the secondary level, the curriculum includes the subjects of Urdu, English, Islamiat, and Pakistan Studies as compulsory subjects for all groups of students. The Humanities group of students opt General Science as a compulsory subject apart from Mathematics and two other subjects in Humanizes whereas Science students study Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology along with compulsory subjects.

4)    Higher Secondary Stage:
Higher secondary education comprises Class 11 and Class 12 and has a duration of 2 years in which the Arts, Science, and Commerce courses are taught. At this level, Urdu, English, Islamiat, and Pakistan Studies are compulsory subjects for both Arts (Humanities) and Science groups of students.

5)    Degree Level:
It starts after the student passes the Higher Secondary Level of education and is admitted to a college to earn a degree. The government has raised its duration from 2 to 3 years. University issues a degree to successful candidates. However, in many parts of the country, the Degree courses are of a duration of two years.

6)    University Level:
It starts after the students pass the degree level examination from the college. Courses leading to the masters and other postgraduate degrees like M.Phil. and PhD classes are categorized as University level degrees. At present, nearly thirty chartered and government-run universities are present in the country. The University issues degrees on successful completion of the course and passing the examination.

7)    Professional Education:
Professional education, which is also formal education, is divided into the following:
i.    Diploma:
The students, who pass the Secondary School Certificate examination, could take admission in diploma courses, which are taught in the Polytechnic institutions in the area of electrical, mechanical, automobile, civil engineering, and computers.
ii.    Engineering Degree:
After passing Higher Secondary level examination the students who had opted for Mathematics at the higher secondary level get admission in different branches of engineering in the Engineering Colleges or universities. They study electrical, mechanical, chemical, electronics, mining, textiles, petroleum, and computer science. Their duration of study is 4 to 5 years.
iii.    Medical Degree:
After passing Higher Secondary examination the students who opted for Biology as a subject at the higher secondary level, take admission in MBBS to become a doctor. The duration of my studies at MBBS is 5 years.
iv.    Commerce:
The students after passing the secondary school examination are admitted to the first-year Commerce class. They pass Inter Commerce and further B. Commerce (B.Com) and M. Commerce (M.Com). The subjects of study include business and administration, management sciences, information technology, economics, accounting etc.
v.    Agricultural Degree:
After passing a higher secondary examination in science, students are admitted for B.sc (Agriculture) and M.Sc. (Agriculture) Degree education. Some students also get degrees in Agricultural Engineering.

Conclusion:
Education is a significant element of promoting the success and progress of an individual and country. There are many educational structures in Pakistan however the most impressive educational structure of Pakistan is dependent on the formal system of education which depends on certain stages, i.e. primary, middle, secondary, higher secondary, degree and university level education. Therefore, the government of Pakistan is enforcing many policies for improving the condition of the education sector and has established several institutions throughout Pakistan to provide formal education.

Q.5) What are the main components of the scheme of studies at the secondary level of education?

The Scheme of studies defines the courses/syllabi prescribed at different levels. The Schemes of studies at the different levels of education are quite distinct from each other. Secondary schools are institutions in which children receive middle, high and higher secondary stages of education. After passing the grade eight Examination, Students are promoted to High/Secondary Level i.e. grades first-year 9 to 10 which are also known as Secondary School certificates (SSC).

Students are required to pass a national examination administered by a regional Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education (BISE). At the secondary level, the curriculum includes the subjects of Urdu, English, Islamiat, and Pakistan Studies as compulsory subjects for all groups of students. The Humanities group of students opt General Science as a compulsory subject apart from Mathematics and two other subjects in Humanizes whereas Science students study Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology along with compulsory subjects.

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Q.6) Write a note on the Teacher-Training Programme in Pakistan.

Teachers occupy a position of paramount importance in any education system because teachers facilitate students’ learning. Every Education system depends on the quality of its teacher. Everyday Technology brings a change in the modern world, which affects the learner’s ability to learn and understand things and skills. Therefore, to meet the requirements of the global world, teachers must be equipped with proper knowledge, skills, and attitudes in achieving the goals of education. Teacher’s training programs are one of those fundamental steps in the education sector, which can fulfil the requirements of a modern education system. After the independence of Pakistan, many education policies were introduced by the government, in which teacher-training policies were also included. These education policies were:

  1. Educational Conference 1947.
  2. Report of the Commission on National Education 1959.
  3. Education Policy 1972-80.
  4. National Education Policy 1998-2010.

1)   The first All Pakistan Education Conference was held in November 1947, which made three important recommendations regarding teacher’s training, i.e. Establishment of Pakistan Teachers’ Academy, Establishment of New Teacher’s Training Institutes, Arrangements for periodic teachers training programs

2) The second Education Policy Program, i.e. The National Education Commission Report 1959 devoted an independent chapter of teacher’s training. This report also introduced short-term training courses and high-level training institutes in each province.

3) The Education Policy 1970 made special arrangements to enhance women’s participation in the teacher’s care. In addition, with the recommendations made by the Education Policy 1970, education was introduced as an elective subject both at Intermediate and Degree levels in the year 1975.

4)  The National Education Policy 1998-2010 to the country for the development of the education sector. This policy is aimed at utilizing Outdated. The quality of teacher education programs was raised by prescribing the qualification of primary teachers from Matric to Intermediate. for, two parallel programs, i.e. F. A / F.S.C Education and B.A/ B.S.C Education were launched for teacher’s training.

Teachers’ Training Programmes:

Teachers’ training has certain levels, which correspond to the general education ability of the teachers. There are three levels of teachers training:

1.    Primary School Teachers:

Teachers for the primary schools The children at professional institutes. They must pass Secondary School Training examination at the end of the one-year course. After completion of this training, they are awarded a certificate, which is called Primary Teachers Certificate (PTC).

2.    Middle School Teachers:

The qualification level of Middle School Teachers’ Training is F.A/ F.S.C. Teachers are given one-year training and awarded a certificate at the end of the program, which is called Certificate of Teaching (CT). PTC and CT training is provided by the Government Colleges of Elementary Education (GCE). There are separate Colleges of Education for girls and boys, which have been established at all the district headquarters within the country.

3.    Secondary School Teachers:

The Teacher Training programme B.Ed is applied to those candidates who possess B.A/ B.S.C degrees at the Government Colleges of Education. However, those candidates who further want to specialize in the subject of education could take another one-year specialization course, which is called Master of Education (M.Ed.). The colleges and institutes of Education conduct this course. Allama Iqbal Open University has started teacher-training courses through its distance education system for those students who cannot afford to attend formal regular courses in the teacher training institutions.

Problems in Teacher Training Programs:

There are a few problems in the teacher-training programs, which include non-availability of a qualified teaching faculty for the Colleges of Education, quality-training programs, financial problems of the Training Institutions, lack of quality material for training and lack of an effective system of management and supervision. However, the most serious problem is that the teachers do not use those teaching skills and methods in their classes, which were taught to them in the training institutions.

Conclusion:

Education is a significant sector in developing the social, moral, economic condition of a country and success cannot be achieved without good quality education and teaching. Teachers are the only assets who can provide good teaching material, knowledge and skills to the learners. Only they can build the national character of students by imparting their wisdom and knowledge. Therefore, it is necessary to train the teachers with modern education and skills to the demands of the global world. The government of Pakistan is paying close attention to teacher’s training for the development of the country.

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