sindh class 9 pak study notes cha 4 land and climate of pakistan

Sindh Class 9 Pak Study Notes Cha 4 Land and Climate of Pakistan

Sindh Class 9 Pak Study Cha 4 Land and Climate of Pakistan. Include fil in the blanks, exercises, important MCQs, important questions.

Pak Study Cha 4 Land and Climate of Pakistan Question Answer

What do you understand by Climate?

Climate is a product of weather, which always experiences variations over space and time. It depends upon the distance from the Equator and Sea, Altitude, direction of Winds and Mountains. Climate is defined as the long-term pattern of the weather of a certain region over 11 to 40 years generally. It is measured by weather conditions such as air pressure, temperature, humidity, wind, and rainfall.

What are the different climatic regions of Pakistan?

Pakistan is situated in the north of the Tropic of Cancer. It is a sub-tropical country. It is situated in the western part of the monsoon region. Some of the areas in the north of Pakistan are warm and moist. Whereas the mountainous areas have a highland-type climate. The average January temperature in the plains of Pakistan is 4°C and the maximum temperature of the same month is 24o C, whereas the minimum temperature in June July is 30°C and the maximum temperature in the same month is 48°C. The maximum temperature of Sibi and Jacobabad is about 50o C.

Climatic Regions of Pakistan:
Pakistan is divided into the following regions based on its climate:

Sub-Tropical Continental Highland
Sub-Tropical Continental Plateau
Sub-Tropical Continental Lowland
Sub-Tropical Coastland

1)    Sub-Tropical Continental Highland:
This climatic region of Pakistan includes northern mountain ranges, northwestern mountain ranges, Western Mountain Ranges, and the mountain ranges of Balochistan. This region consists of areas of very high altitudes. The mountain peaks remain snow-covered throughout the year at very high altitudes. The summer season has moderate temperature whereas rains are received at the end of winter and the beginning of spring. In some parts of this region, for example, Outer Himalayas, Murree, and Hazara, rains are experienced all-round the year.
2)    Sub-Tropical Continental Plateau:
This climatic region includes most of the parts of Baluchistan and in these parts hot and dusty winds continuously blow from May to the mid of September. Sibi and Jacobabad are located in this region. These areas received very little rain in January and February. The climate of this region is extremely hot and dry in summer. The dusty winds that blow during the summer season are an important characteristic of this region.
3)    Sub-Tropical Continental Lowland:
This climatic region includes the upper Indus plain (the province of Punjab) and Lower Indus Plainmonth (the province of Sindh). The summers are extremely hot. Monsoon winds cause heavy rains in northern Punjab at the end of the summer season whereas the remaining plain areas receive less rain. The same situation remains during the winter season. Thai and southeastern deserts are the hottest areas. Windstorms of thunderstorms are experienced in the plain area of Peshawar.
4)    Sub-Tropical Coastland:
This climatic region includes the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan or the southern parts of Pakistan. The temperature remains moderate in these areas. The difference between the maximum and minimum temperature is very less. There is an inflow of sea breeze throughout the summer, which increases the humidity in the atmosphere. Therefore, the annual average temperature is 32°C and rainfall is 180 mm. May and June are the hottest months. The plain of Lasbela receives rainfall in both the set-summer and winter seasons.

Pakistan has much diversity in spatial and seasonal variation of the climate. It lies in the monsoon zone of climate but being in the extreme western part of the region, it does not possess its characteristics. Therefore, the climate of Pakistan is arid, hot, and continental type. There are extreme variations in the temperature because a major part of Pakistan lies at a great distance from the sea.

How does climate affect human life?

Global warming is bringing a lot of changes to the climate of the earth. It has a deep effect on the way of life of the people. The variations in the temperature of Pakistan appear as a great loss to the natural resource. The north of Pakistan is covered with the highest mountains that are capped with snow while the southern part is composed of hyperactive deserts because of the closeness of the Arabian Sea.

Influence of Climate on life:
Human life is greatly affected by the influence of climate. The climate and weather conditions of a particular area influence the way of living, dress, food, occupation, sports, customs and the economic set up of the people of that area, a vast country and there is much difference in climate in its various regions. There is a marked difference in the customs and living patterns of the people. Some of the effects on human life are:

1)    Impact on the people of Northern and Northwestern Areas:
The northern and northwestern areas of Pakistan are surrounded by mountain ranges. In winter, the temperature of mountain areas falls below the freezing point. All the activities of the people living here are limited during the winter due to the severe cold. People store food items and other necessary commodities before the winter. In these areas, people build houses with sloping roofs to make them safe from rainfall and snowfall. Some people of this area temporarily migrate to plain areas during winter in search of jobs and food and return to their homes when the summer season starts. At the start of the summer season, when the snow melts, life generates through hustle and bustle. The trees, plants, and grass grow rapidly. Springs and streams which had become frozen during winter, start flowing with clean water and become a source of adding beauty to the areas.
2)    The intensity in Climate of the Plain Areas:
The wide plain region is located in the South of the Northern mountainous region. There is intensity in the climate of the plain areas of Pakistan. The people of this region work diligently in winters but during summer the efficiency decreases. Light clothes are used during summer and heavy woollen clothes are used during winter. The land and climate of these areas are suitable for agriculture. A variety of crops is grown during the winter and the summer; the area becomes prosperous as a lot of food grain, fruits, and vegetables grow in these areas. The plain areas are populated as compared to the northern areas.
3)    Heatwaves in Southern Areas:
The southern areas of Pakistan are desert and hot. Windstorms and sandy cyclones blow frequently. The heatwaves lead to heat strokes and dehydration.  People use coarse clothes to protect themselves from heat and hot wind.  This area receives very little rainfall. Therefore, people have to fetch water from far off distant places.  They travel in the night because deserts in the night are cold. People breed sheep, goats, and cattle.
4)    Extreme temperature in Balochistan Plateau:
The climate of the Balochistan Plateau is extremely hot during summers and extremely cold during winters. Some areas having high altitudes receive snowfall during winter. This is the driest area of Pakistan. Winter Snowfall is an important source of the availability of water reservoirs in this area. During summer, water is stored in dales and small rivers. The rainwater is stored and is carried from one place to another through underground channels called “Kameez.” The income of the people living in this area mostly depends upon the rearing of sheep, goats, and other cattle. This area is rich in producing fruits and mineral resources.

In short, climate immensely affects the economic, social, cultural, political, and commercial activities of human life. The people living in severe cold regions wear woollen and thick clothes. They build houses consisting of small rooms, which can be heated easily and consume food with high protein and fat to maintain the temperature. Compared to the cold region, the people living in low lands and desert regions wear loose dresses due to hot weather in summer. Their houses are open and People of hot regions eat wheat bread, rice, and fish. The People of these regions are prosperous as compared to the people of the cold region.

What is Environmental Pollution?

Environmental pollution has emerged as a big problem throughout the world. It is defined as all the surroundings of the living organism, which includes the natural world, objects, circumstances etc. Pollution is defined as changes in the environment of earth, water and air, which put an injurious influence on human life as well as on the air. Thus, when different elements bring unhealthy changes in our environments, it is called environmental pollution.

What is the relationship between population growth and environmental pollution?

Environmental pollution and population growth are interrelated hazards. Population growth stretches the use of natural resources to the maximum. Overpopulation is, on one side, creating the problem of attainment of self-sufficiency in food while on the other side, it is rapidly decreasing agricultural resources such as water shortage and turning the fertile lands into barren ones for the expansion of cities. In addition, rapid industrialization, deforestation, and smoke created by heavy and light vehicles are playing a great role in increasing environmental pollution.

Therefore, Ecology has emerged as a new science to make people aware of the pollution of water, air, and land. The increase in the human population is directly proportional to the increase of human needs for life. Pakistan is one of those countries of the world where environmental pollution is increasing day by day. There are mainly three types of environmental pollution, i.e.

Air Pollution (Atmospheric)
Water Pollution
Land Pollution
1)    Air Pollution (Atmospheric):
Air is the most essential element for human survival, living beings, and vegetation.
There are some gases in the air, which are essential for the atmosphere and living beings and it is necessary to keep the natural balance of these gases, which is rapidly changing due to some human activities. The smoke, poisonous moisture, atomic wastes etc. are damaging the atmosphere. Air pollution brings an unhealthy impact on human beings, vegetation, and buildings. Man has invented machines for his convenience and for living a comfortable life. Oil, gas, and coal are used to run motor cars, aeroplanes, and ships. They produce dark smoke, which is injurious to human health. It causes serious disease, death to humans, and damage to other living organisms such as food crops, or the natural environment. Industries are the major source of creating the air pollution in the world.

2)    Water Pollution:
Water is a great blessing of Almighty Allah and is an essential element for life. It maintains 70% of the total weight of the human body. Although the fourth summer of our earth is covered with water, yet according to research, only 3 per cent of it is drinkable.
This freshwater is used in homes, agriculture and factories. Water is a good solvent; therefore, it dissolves solids, gases, and liquids. When unclean particles are mixed in water bodies e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers, and groundwater, it becomes dark and loses its natural form. This state of water is called “Water pollution.” The polluted water is harmful to human health, animals, agriculture, and vegetation. Polluted water becomes a source of dangerous diseases and sometimes causes death.

3)    Land Pollution:
Land pollution is the degradation of Earth’s land surfaces through direct and indirect sources, which is often caused by human activities, and their misuse of land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed of properly. The earth is polluted biologically, chemically and physiologically, when several harmful things are introduced into the earth. Air and water pollution are also the source of land pollution. The land is polluted through floods, earthquakes, volcanoes and when human beings bury harmful material into the earth, it damages its composition. Elements, which make the land barren, are:

Decrease in the forest areas, stock rearing bushes, and low height trees.
Salinity and waterlogging.
Depositing waste of pharmaceuticals and chemicals into the earth.
Excessive use of fertilizers.
Water and air pollution.

Environmental hazards are the degradation of Earth’s land surfaces and natural resources through direct and indirect sources, which is often caused by human activities, and their misuse of resources. The rapidly growing population creates many problems. It is continuously decreasing natural and human resources. Therefore, to protect the natural environment, the government should take effective steps to control the population growth, which is the root cause of all the evils.

Describe the importance of the location of Pakistan in the South Asian Region.

Pakistan is located between latitudes 23.35° to 37.05° north and longitudes 60.50° to 77.50° east. Pakistan is situated amid the South Asian countries and shares an 800 km long border with Iran, which is connected through rail and road. India lies in the east of Pakistan and Pakistan has nearly 1600km long common borders with India. Pakistan shares a common boundary of about 585 kilometres with China. Tajikistan is located in the north of Pakistan. A small strip of Afghan territory known as Wakhan separates Pakistan from Tajikistan. In the northwest, 2250 km long border separates Pakistan from Afghanistan, which is known as the Durand line. The Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean lie in the South of Pakistan.

Importance of Pakistan’s Location:
The location of Pakistan occupies specific importance not only in South Asia but also all over the world. Pakistan is a key source to establish a link between the East and the West. Pakistan is situated in a region, which has great political, economic, and military importance such as:

It is connected with China in the North. The Karakoram Highway connects China and Pakistan by land. This highway has been constructed by cutting the rocks of the Karakoram Region. This Highway is an important trade route between Pakistan and China. Pakistan has very friendly relations with China.
Afghanistan offers the most direct access for the Central Asian region to ports and markets in South Asia and the Persian Gulf. Afghanistan is situated to the North-west of Pakistan. The adjoining border with Afghanistan is called the Durand Line. Pakistan provides transit trade to Afghanistan as the country has no warm water seaports.
In the west of China, a narrow strip of Wakhan of Afghanistan territory separates Pakistan’s Northern border from Tajikistan. Pakistan has developed close friendly relations with this country.
Iran is on the southwest border of Pakistan. Iran and Turkey along with Pakistan are members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). This organization has strengthened friendly relations between the member countries. These countries have signed several projects of mutual interest.
Pakistan is situated near the oil-producing Gulf countries and in the middle of the Muslim World, which is stretched from Morocco in the West to Indonesia in the East. The industrial development of some Western countries depends on the oil produced by the Gulf States, which is transported to other countries through the Arabian Sea. Karachi is an important seaport on the Arabian Sea.
Pakistan is situated in the centre of the Muslim World and maintains friendly relations with the Muslim countries of the Middle East and the Gulf. In the North-west of Pakistan, there are Central Asian Republics Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan. All these republics are landlocked. These are located away from the ocean. They own no coast. Therefore, they have to pass through Pakistan to access the ocean. Pakistan has also played a very significant role in the development of these countries. Saudi Arabia and UAE are considered second homes for Pakistani people.
Karachi is an International harbour and airport. It connects Europe with Asia through sea and air routes.
Indus Valley and the Gandhara are ancient civilizations, therefore; the places of these ancient civilizations possess great importance for tourism. Tourists from all over the world love to visit the valley of Kaghan, Swat and the northern areas of Pakistan.
Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan have signed a protocol on the supply of gas through the pipeline, which passes through Afghanistan to Pakistan. This project has helped in developing friendly relations with each other.
Pakistan is the seventh Atomic nation in the world and enjoys high prestige in the Muslim world. It is also an advanced country in certain technologies. Muslim countries look towards Pakistan for playing a leading role in common development in some fields. In recent times, it has become a centre for foreign investment.
Pakistan has established relations with many other countries through the Arabian Sea route. Among them, Southeast Muslim countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam), South Asian Muslim countries (Bangladesh, Maldives), and Sri Lanka are included.

The relations between Pakistan and other regional countries are very friendly because Pakistan is an ideal route for South Asia’s international trade. It is the centre of trade and industry for the neighbouring countries to establish their trade links with the outer world for the benefit of the entire region. Thus, it has special importance for the economy of the country.

Give a brief account of the physical features of Pakistan.

The Physical environment of Pakistan comprises location, relief features, climate etc. Therefore, it is a profound blend of landscapes, which varies from plains to deserts, hills, forests, and plateaus from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the South to the Karakoram Mountain Ranges in the north. Pakistan is divided into the following landforms:

Deserts including coastal areas

1)    Mountains:
The high piece of land that has a rocky, uneven, and steep surface is called a mountain. The mountains of Pakistan are divided into two parts, which are Northern and Northeastern mountains and Northwestern and western mountains
1. Northern and Northeastern Mountains:
Pakistan has a series of the world’s highest mountains collectively in the northeast of Pakistan which is known as ‘the Himalayas’. These ranges of Mountains are about 700 km in length and are called the ‘roof of the world’. These mountain ranges include the Himalayas and the Karakoram.

The Himalayas:
Himalaya is the highest mountain in the world and is situated in the northeastern part of Pakistan. The Four parallel ranges of the Himalayan Mountains enter Pakistan through the Kashmir valley. Many beautiful valleys are located in these ranges. These ranges are divided into the Sub Himalayas or the Siwalik Hills, the Lesser Himalayas or the Pir Panjal Mountain Range and the Great Himalayan mountain ranges.

The Karakoram Mountain Range:
Karakoram Range includes the territories of North Kashmir and Gilgit. The average height of the Karakoram Range is about 7000 meters. The second highest peak of the world, Godwin Austen or K-2, is located in the Karakoram.

2.  North-Western and Western Mountains:
The mountain ranges situated in the northwest of Pakistan are also known as Western branches of the Himalayas. These mountains are less in height as compared to the North Eastern Mountains. Many valleys, small rivers, and passes are situated in these mountains. These mountain ranges are also divided into the following parts:

The Hindukush Mountains:
The Tirich Mir is the highest peak of this mountain range with a height of 7690 meters. These mountains are covered with snow during the winter and are the source of stopping the severe cold winds that blow from Central Asia.

The Koh-e-Safed Range:
These mountainous ranges are known as White Mountains (Safed Koh) because their peaks are always covered with snow. Seeka Ram Sar is the highest Peak of this range. The average height of this range is 3600 meters.
The Waziristan Hills:
The area between Kurram Pass and Gomal Pass is known as Waziristan Hills with an average height of 1500-3000 meters. This area is rich in mineral wealth.

The Sulaiman Range:
It begins in the south of the river Gomal. Its highest peak is Takht-e-Sulaiman, which is 3487 meters above sea level. The most important river of this region is the Bolan River.

The Kirthar Range:
It lies on the south of the Sulaiman range and along the western edge of the lower Indus valley. The highest point in this range is Gorakh.

2)    Plateaus:
Plateau is a large stretch of relatively level land that is higher than the land around it, which has at least one side of steep slope falling abruptly to the lower land.  Plateaus cover a vast area of Pakistan. There are two plateaus in Pakistan, i.e. the Potwar Plateau and the Balochistan Plateau. The Potwar plateau starts in the south of the river Jhelum. This area is rich in oil and other minerals, e.g. gypsum, coal, and salt, etc. and the main rivers of this area are Soan and the Haro. The average height of this range is about 700 Metres While the Balochistan plateau is located in the west of Kirthar and the Sulaiman mountains. Its height is between 650 meters. The Rainfall in most areas of this plateau is scarce. It is mostly dry and barren. However, this area is also rich in minerals.

3)    Plains:
The alluvium brought by the Indus River and its tributaries has formed the plains of Pakistan. The vast plain areas can be divided into three parts, i.e. the Upper Indus Plain, the Lower Indus Plain, and the Indus Delta. The Upper Indus Plain extends from the south of Potwar plateau to Mithan Kot in the Punjab province. wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, corn, pulses, etc. in large quantities, while the area in the south of Mithan Kot is called the lower Indus plain.  The Embankments have been built on its banks to protect the land and save the people from the floods.

4)    Deserts including Coastal Areas:
The area in the southeast of Pakistan is covered with rolling dunes. The desert areas of Pakistan receive very low rainfall, therefore, these deserts are without natural vegetation. These desert areas of Pakistan are the Thal Desert, Cholistan Desert, Thar, and Nara Desert, the Shanghai and Kharan Desert.

5)    Coastal Areas:
Pakistan has about 700 sq. Kilometers long coastal area. All the coastal areas of Pakistan are located in the Arabian Sea. The importanJelaniours of coastal areas are Port Qasim, Sonmiani, Ormara, Pasni, Gwadar, and Jelani.

Geographically, Pakistan is situated at a crossroads in Asia. It enjoys a unique landscape; in the northwest, it hosts the world’s most magnificent mountain ranges of Himalaya, Karakoram, and the Hindukush. In contrast, arid plains and deserts dominate the central and southern parts of the country, which include the great Thar and Thal Deserts whereas the Indus River and its numerous tributaries drain the entire country.

Read more: Sindh 9 Class Pak Studies Cha 3

Q.8) Mention the benefits of the Northern-eastern mountainous region.


Pakistan is situated in the northwestern part of the Southern Asian subcontinent and occupies the western end of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, which is bounded by the northern and northwestern mountains.

Northern and Northeastern Mountains:

Pakistan has a series of the world’s highest mountains collectively in the northeast of Pakistan, which is known as ‘the Himalayas’. These ranges of Mountains are situated on the northern side of the subcontinent about 700 km in length and are called the ‘roof of the world’. These mountain ranges include the Himalayas and the Karakoram.

1)    The Himalayas:

Himalaya is the highest mountain in the world and is situated in the northeastern part of Pakistan. The Four parallel ranges of the Himalayan Mountains enter Pakistan through the Kashmir valley. Many beautiful valleys are located in these ranges. These ranges can be divided into the following parts:

a)    The Sub Himalayas or the Siwalik Hills:

These hills are situated in the North where the upper Indus Plain ends. The hills spread in the South of Himalaya from the Sialkot district to the northern part of Rawalpindi district. Their average height is 300 to 1000 meters.

b)    The Lesser Himalayas or the Pir Panjal Mountain Range:

These mountains are located near the border ranges of Karakoram and mostly run parallel to the Siwalik Hills. These hills rise gradually from the height of 1800 meters to 4600 meters. Most of the northern hilly areas are situated here. Health resorts like Murree, Ayubia, Nathia Gali, Abbottabad, and the beautiful valley of Kaghan are located here. Most of the parts of this mountain range remain covered with snow but summers are very pleasant, vegetation and forests grow in abundance and enhance the scenic beauty of the place.

c)    Great Himalayan mountain range:

The biggest Himalayan mountain range is situated between Pir Panjal and Karakoram ranges. The highest mountain range of the world begins in the north of Pir Panjal. The height of the mountain is 6500 meters. The highest peak of these ranges is Nanga Parbat, which is 8126 meters above sea level. The beautiful valley of Kashmir also lies in this range.

d)    The Karakoram Mountain Range:

Karakoram Range is situated in the North-West of the Great Himalayas and includes the territories of North Kashmir and Gilgit. The average height of the Karakoram Range is about 7000 meters. The highest peak of Pakistan and the second highest peak of the world, Godwin Austen or K-2, is located in the Karakoram. Its height above sea level is 8611 meters. This range covers some glaciers, which also includes the Siachen glacier.

The Importance of North Eastern Mountain Range:

  • These mountains are very beneficial for Pakistan. They provide a natural defence to Pakistan from the North due to their height and uneven surface.
  • They protect Pakistan from the cold freezing winds, which blow from the North Pole, otherwise Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa would have been covered with snow during the winter season, and the longer duration of cold would have made life difficult and miserable.
  • These mountains cause huge rainfall in Punjab and the Northern areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the monsoon season, which becomes the source of irrigation through the rivers.
  • During winter, these mountains are covered with snow, which melts during the summer season and raises the underground water table. The water can be used for irrigation.
  • These mountains cover 80% of the forests of Pakistan. Although only 4.5% of the geographical area of Pakistan is under forests, these forests are quite thick and are the source of great wealth to the country.
  • We also get precious wood from these mountains.
  • There are many healthy places in the region where people go for tourism. Among these places, Murree, Ayubia, Nathiagali, Kaghan, Lipa Valley, Skardu, Swat Valley, Kalam, Neelam Valley, Bagh, Hunza, Chitral, Chilas, and Gilgit are famous.


The northeastern mountain regions are considered as a lifeline for the people of the down country in Pakistan due to the perpetual supply of fresh water for agricultural, domestic, and industrial use. All of Pakistan’s five major rivers and their tributaries originate in these mountain regions and receives their waters from the glaciers and snow-clad mountains. These magnificent mountain ranges are the highest and most precipitous mountain peaks in the world. Therefore, the beauty of these mountains attracts tourists from all over the world, which benefits the country in many great ways.

Q.9) Name the neighbouring countries of Pakistan.


Pakistan is one of the largest countries in the world and it is located in the mid of the South Asian region. Pakistan shares its borders with many countries, therefore its neighboring countries are:

1)    India:

India lies in the east of Pakistan and Pakistan has nearly 1600km long common borders with India along with the provinces of Sindh and Punjab.

2)    Afghanistan:

Afghanistan is located in the northwest of Pakistan and shares a 2250 km long border, which is known as the Durand line.

3)    Iran:

Pakistan shares an 800 km long border with Iran in the west, which is connected through rail and road.

4)    Arabian Sea:

The Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean lie in the South of Pakistan. These form a coastal area of about 700 kilometers.

5)    China:

China is situated in the north of Pakistan. Pakistan shares a common boundary of about 585 kilometers with China and is connected with it through Karakoram Highway.

Fill in the Blanks

i) The long border between Pakistan and Afghanistan is called ______.

ii) Pakistan is divided into______________ climatic Regions.

iii) The Coastal areas of Pakistan are ________ and __________ .

iv) The climate of the upper Indus plains of Pakistan is _______.

v) The water evaporation is about _________ in the atmosphere.

vi) Water maintains________________ of the total weight of human body.

vii) People of the Northern region in Pakistan perform___________________ activities during winter.

viii) In the South-West of Pakistan, __________  is our neighbouring country.

ix) Baluchistan has an area of__________________ sq. kilometers.

xii) The biggest salt mine in the world is in Pakistan’s__________, Province.

  1. Durand line
  2. Four
  3. Makran Coast, Sindh Coast
  4. Hot
  5. 4%
  6. 70%
  7. Household cottage
  8. Iran
  9. 347,190
  10. Punjab

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Pak Studies Notes For Class 9th Sindh and Karachi board Notes contain short questions, long questions, multiple-choice questions, and some extra notes.

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