sindh class 9 notes pak study ch8 culture of pakistan

Sindh Class 9 Notes Pak Study Ch8 Culture of Pakistan

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Culture of Pakistan Pakistan Studies Notes

Q.1) Describe the characteristics of the culture.

Answer:

Culture is defined as the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music, and arts. It emerged as a means of using symbols to construct social identity and maintain coherence within a social group to rely exclusively on the pre-human ways of building community.  Therefore, the literal meaning of culture is to cultivate something.

Characteristics of Culture:

The culture of a nation is a combination of a number of factors. It includes the way of living, language, literature, religion, customs, and traditions, the ideology of life, food habits, architecture, and fine arts. These aspects of culture grow simultaneously. Every factor of culture reflects nations’ past and present Geographical conditions, which include land, climate, vegetation, natural resources etc. Some of the characteristics of culture are:

1.    Influence of Other Cultures:

Culture is subject to change under the influence of contact with other cultures. There was a time when Muslim Culture had influenced other nations of the world. The cultural force remains effective when people’s character manifests its faith in that culture. New culture emerges due to the process of change and contact with other cultures.

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2.    Treasure of Knowledge:

Culture provides knowledge, which is essential for the physical and intellectual existence of man. The human being has greater intelligence and learning capacity. Culture has made such an adaptation and modification possible and easier by providing man with the necessary skills and knowledge.

3.    Model of Attitudes, Values, and Goods:

Attitudes refer to the tendency to feel and work out in certain ways. Values are the measure of goodness or desirability. Goods refer to the attainments, which one’s values define as worthy. It is the culture, which conditions the person’s attitude towards various issues such as religion, morality, marriage, science, family planning, positions and so on.

4.     Culture Provides Behavior Pattern:

Culture directs and confines the behaviour of an individual. It assigns goals and provides means for achieving them. It rewards noble works and punishes the ignoble ones. Culture not only contains but also liberates human energy and activities.

5.    The vision of cooperation:

Culture has given a new vision to the cooperation of the individuals. Culture teaches him to think of himself as a part of the larger whole. It provides him with the concepts of family, state, nation etc. and makes possible the coordination and division of labour.

6.    Maintenance of social relationships:

Culture regulates the behaviour of the people and satisfies their primary drives i.e. hunger, shelter, and sex, which enable him to maintain group life. People behave the way of society. Culture has provided a number of checks upon irrationally or irresponsibly.

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Conclusion:

The characteristics of culture define the behaviour of the whole society. In this way, it distinguishes one society from other societies. Therefore, it can be concluded that culture is the central resource for strengthening unity and harmony in families, communities and in a country.

Why is language an important element of culture?

Language is defined as the means of verbal communication, which is used to convey thoughts and ideas whereas culture refers to social systems, attitudes, shared patterns of behaviour, beliefs, knowledge, and values.

Therefore, language is considered the most important part of culture because it is an effective way of sharing the expression of ideas, rules, norms, and feelings. Language is the identity of a nation and is a source of unity and national cohesion. All the languages of a country are part of a culture. That is why every nation loves its language and takes all possible steps for its development.

Q.3) Write a note on the languages of Pakistan.

Answer:

Language is the most important aspect of culture. It is the dominant feature in determining nationality or ethnicity and the binding force, which unites people, and makes them distinct from others. Languages of the vibrant and civilized societies are rich in academic traditions and vice versa in uncivilized societies.

Languages of Pakistan:

Pakistan is situated in that region of the world in which the relics of many civilizations have been found. These civilizations have their own features, social values, qualities, and cultural characteristics. Therefore, more than 30 languages are spoken in Pakistan. The national language of Pakistan is Urdu, which is understood and spoken across the country with a minor difference in accent. The most important languages are Urdu, Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, and Balochi.

1.    Urdu:

Urdu is the national language and holds the status of a symbol of national identity. It is the cultural heritage and medium of communication in Pakistan. The Urdu language developed between the Muslim Mughal rulers who recruited their army from different castes and religions like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Bengalis, Hindustanis, and Afghans etc.

Thus, the Urdu language took the shape from the mixing up of these languages.

Urdu played a vital role in promoting the Pakistan Movement for the struggle of the Pakistan movement. Different authors wrote prominent works in the forms of literature, which include research and criticism, poetry, novel writing, drama writing, and story writing.

After independence, the Urdu language is spoken and understood in all the provinces of Pakistan because it has a close affinity and resemblance with all the regional languages of Pakistan.

2.    Sindhi:

Sindhi is one of the ancient languages of Pakistan. The Holy Quran was first translated into the Sindhi language in South Asia. Chuck Nama is one of the immortal works of Sindhi literature. The Sindhi poetry of the mystic saints is equally popular not only in Sindh but also in other parts of Pakistan. The Sufi poets like Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai and Sachal Sarmast had enriched Sindhi literature through their exemplary poetry. In the twentieth century, this language has made considerable progress in the realms of prose and poetry. The constant contributions have been made in short stories, novels, dramas, travelogues, essays, poetry, and prose.

3.    Punjabi:

Punjabi is an ancient language spoken in the most populous province of Pakistan. The Punjab vocabulary includes words from Arabic, Turkish and Persian languages. Some ancient Buddhist monks wrote religious or devotional lyrics in Punjabi, which are considered the earliest pieces of Punjabi literature. The work in Punjab literature was first started after the arrival of Muslims in South Asia.

Most of the religious scholars of Islam and mystics of Asia used the Punjabi language for expressing their ideas and for the propagation of the religion. The great mystic poets and preachers in Punjabi include Baba Fareed Ganj Shakar, Shah Hussain, Sultan Bahu, Bulge Shah, Waris Shah, Hashim Shah, Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, and Khawaja Ghulam Fareed.

After the 20th century, different people did invaluable work in novel writing, drama writing, narrative writing, research and criticism and other forms of prose. Many books on art, philosophy, history, linguistics, economics, geography, traditional medicines (Tibb) and law have been written in the Punjabi language along with Punjabi journalism.

4.    Pashto:

Pashto is not only spoken in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa but it is also spoken in many parts of Balochistan. Pashto was written in Kharosthi script before the arrival of the Muslims in the Subcontinent. Saifullah replaced the old Pashto script and introduced Arabic script for the Pashto language. He also wrote the book Tazkira-tul-Aulia.  The famous Pashto poets of the 17th and 18th century such as Kazim Khan Shaida, Rehman Baba, and Khushhal Khan Khattak wrote a large number of lyrical poems in Pashto. Pashto grammar was also compiled in the same period. Under the influence of modern education, the writers, who possessed new ideas and thoughts, did prominent work in writing a Pashto dictionary, grammar writing, biography, short story writing, novel, and drama. The Pashto Academy played an important role in finding, collecting and storing the prominent literary works in Pashto.

5.    Balochi:

 The Balochi language is spoken in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. The Balochi tribes came from Northeastern Iran and brought with them the ancient Balochi language. Ancient Balochi literature consisted of folk songs and poems about tribal conflicts and romantic themes. Since Balochs did not know the art of writing and they had no script, the poetry so created was not written; it just passed down by word of mouth and has almost been forgotten with the passage of time. Meer Chakar and Hammal Rind are the most celebrated of the classical Balochi poets. Hani Shah Murid is an excellent Balochi classic. Sayyed Muhammad Taqi Shah Taib, Mast Tavakkali, and Gul Muhammad Zaib are rated very high amongst the classical Balochi poets. The First Balochi journal was published in 1960 in which the Balochi script was given its final shape and many organizations were developed for the promotion of Balochi language and literature.

Conclusion:

Pakistan is a linguistically diverse country because many languages are spoken in this country. However, the main languages are Punjabi, Pashto, Urdu, Balochi, and Sindhi. These languages have a rich treasure of literature because Poets of these languages have enriched their language with mystic, romantic, and epic poetry. The literature in prose, story writing, ghazal, nazam, dramas, folktales, poetry etc. has gained global recognition due to its meaningful and beautiful verses.

Q.4) Describe the importance of Urdu as a national language.

Answer:

Language is the prime mark of identification for any nation. The national language creates a feeling of unity and national cohesion. Urdu became the official language along with English after the establishment of Pakistan. It is recognized as the national language of Pakistan and used as ‘lingua Franca. Lingua franca is a language, which serves as a medium of communication.

Importance of Urdu as a National Language:

Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language. The Muslim invaders enriched it by incorporating Persian, Turkish, and Arabic words. All Pakistani languages are written in the same script and are derived from almost the same source; they have many words in common. It has acquired great Importance for creating national unity.

1.    Source of Contact:

It is an important source of coordination and developing contact among the people of Pakistan because it is spoken and understood in all the provinces of Pakistan. Hence, it is a source of national integration and solidarity.

2.    Role in Pakistan Movement:

Urdu was the most favoured language in the early stages of the Pakistan Movement because it absorbed Arabic, Persian, Turkish and English vocabulary. Islamic culture gave it a distinct identity and made it popular among Muslims. Many Muslim leaders like Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Abdul Majeed Sindhi, Allama Iqbal, Hasrat Mohani, Allama Shibli Nomani, Quaid-e-Azam, and several others favoured Urdu against Hindi and proved that Urdu was the only language of the sub-continent in which literature of Islam existed in abundance. Urdu created unity among the people.

3.    Common Language:

Urdu as the National Language of Pakistan and the provincial languages have an intimate relationship. All these languages have been influenced by Arabic Persian and English vocabulary and contain a large number of common words. Urdu has also developed a very rich vocabulary due to its unique quality of absorbing and adopting words and phrases from other languages.

4.    Media Communication:

Media i.e. Radio, television, and press are playing an important role in the promotion of national unity through national and provincial languages. The common heritage of these languages has been exposed to the people, which has strengthened the national language and has created harmony among the people of different regions of Pakistan.

5.    Source of benefit:

The writings in provincial languages like folk tales, essays, plays, poetry, and songs are being translated into the Urdu language for the purpose of the maximum benefit of people to understand it and develop goodwill among the people.

6.    Coordination:

Pakistan is a federation of four provinces. Urdu serves as the medium of coordination between different provinces of Pakistan. Urdu, therefore, is playing an important role in national unity.

7.    The promoter of Cultural Unity:

Urdu is a vast language. It has borrowed and assimilated a treasure of beautiful words from a number of languages. It is an ideal example of the phenomenon through which national unity has been achieved without damaging the variety and diversity of our colourful cultural heritage.

Conclusion:

Language is the only medium by which one can express his ideas and feelings. It plays a vital role in building unity and integration in the country. Urdu serves as the national language of Pakistan and is known as the symbol of Muslim nationhood in the world because it played a vital role in the freedom movement of Muslims before the establishment of Pakistan. Later it was adopted as the national language of Pakistan because it has the quality of absorbing words from other languages. The Government should take effective measures to promote the Urdu language at the International level.

Q.5) What are the common cultural manifestations in national life?

Answer:

Culture is defined as the customs, beliefs, art, and all other human products, which are made by a particular group of people living in a specific area. E.B. Tylor has defined culture as:

“that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”

Cultural Manifestation in the National Life:

Cultural manifestations of a Muslim society emerge from the spiritual and moral principles enunciated by Islam. These principles express themselves in the behaviour of Muslim society and the outward manifestations of the Muslim culture, i.e. dress, customs, architect, traditions, fairs and festivals, arts, crafts etc. Pakistan is a federation of four provinces, which have their own provincial languages. There is a slight difference between the customs and the ways of living of the people belonging to different provinces. However, the distinction of the cultural heritage of Pakistan is the Islamic civilization, which presented principles of equality, fraternity, unity, justice, and truth. Therefore, common cultural manifestations in national life are:

1.    Mixed Culture:

Pakistani culture is a mixed culture. In the past people who settled in areas, which now comprise Pakistan came from different areas. The earliest settlers of the region were part displaced, part mingled with the Aryan invaders. Later on, various people of Iranian, Afghan, Greek, Arab, Mongolian and Turkic origin settled and mingled with local populations. Whichever group came, it brought with it its customs, traditions, festivals, dress, food, and style of living. These groups had an influence on each other and a mixed culture emerged.

2.    Status of Men and Women:

The male member has occupied a unique status in Pakistani culture. He is the head of the family. However, the woman is also considered an important part of the family who governs and manages all family affairs within the four walls. She has the right to education, right to property and right to business in accordance with the principles of Islam. The rights and duties of men and women are determined in the teachings of Islam. These principles are equally followed in all the four provinces of Pakistan and, hence, form a common cultural heritage of Pakistan.

3.    Social life:

The social life of Pakistan is simple and elegant. People follow their old customs and traditions. In Pakistani culture, the family is a basic and very important unit in the society and generally, a joint family system is followed. Respect and honour is the foundation of the family. The head of the family is an elderly male and the woman is honoured. Marriages are performed in the traditional manner and are very colourful. The bride and groom start their new life with the religious ceremony of Nikkah. The display of the dowry, fireworks, extravagant lighting, singing, and dancing are the un-Islamic practices, which have now become part of the marriage ceremonies. 

4.    Foods

People of Pakistan have different food choices in different areas. Most of people eat bread, rice, meat, dry fruits, curd, ghee, pulses, and vegetables. For drinking, people prefer tea, green tea, lassi, milk etc. however, festive food is prepared for special occasions like marriages or special dinners etc.

5.    Religious Events:

The common cultural heritage is witnessed in all the religious events and ceremonies. Marriage is a sacred religious task in Pakistani culture and it reflects Islamic tradition and colour. People wear colourful dresses at the occasion of marriages, sing cheerful songs, exchange gifts, and invite people for delicious meals.  The occasion of birth in the family is traditionally celebrated by the distribution of sweets. According to Islamic practices, the azan is recited in the ears of the newborn just after his/her birth, therefore he should always remember that Allah is one and Holy Prophet S.A.W is the last prophet of Allah. Felicitations, and sometimes gifts, are due from relatives and friends.

6.  The message of Love and Unity:

Our cultural heritage is reflected through our regional literature and literary values. Many saints and Sufis have conveyed a single message of love and brotherhood in different languages. The literature produced by different writers conveys the message of peace, humanity, mysticism, justice, love, and cooperation. Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai and Sachal Sarmast in Sindh, Sultan Bahu, Bulge Shah, Waris Shah in Punjab, Rehman Baba, and Khushal Khan Khattak in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gul Khan Naseer in Balochistan have taught love and unity through their poetry. They are the symbol of our common cultural heritage.

Media of Communication:

Radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and means of transport are the source of developing national coordination and common national culture.

System of Education:

 National culture is developed through the system of education, which is followed at the national level. The uniformity in the system of education through the scheme of studies, a system of supervision, examination, and evaluation helps in inculcating national spirit and makes the children conscious of our common cultural values. This creates national harmony, promotes common culture, and helps the new generation to maintain a link with their cultural heritage.

Conclusion:

The real beauty of any nation lies within its traditions, values, and culture. The society and culture of Pakistan comprise numerous diverse cultures and ethnic groups but Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life which provides a bond of relationship in which people are joint to each other with emotional ties. Pakistani Culture gives much respect to their customs and traditions and pays due attention to family values. This will lead to a happy, healthy, and prospering society. As it is said that one good family builds a good community, then all good communities build a good society and in the end, all good societies jointly fabricate a successful nation.

Q.6) Write down a note on the arts and crafts of Pakistan.

Answer:

The vitality, vigour, and personality of a nation or group of people are based on its culture that actually marks the people’s arts, literature, and their love of beauty. The Arts of Pakistan has great importance in the world due to its aesthetic beauty. Printing, calligraphy, architecture, and music are considered as fine arts. During the Muslim period, these arts flourished in South Asia. Their accomplishment is our cultural heritage. In Pakistan, our artists created noble works of paintings. The Muslims from the beginning innovated the art of calligraphy by lettering the Holy Quran. Moreover, during the period of Mughal rulers in the subcontinent, the art of calligraphy made marvelous progress. Traditional architecture is reflected in the construction of beautiful buildings.  The stone carving and preparation of ornaments with metal and iron, sculpturing, modelling, figure making are the masterpiece works and models of fine art in Pakistani culture.

Handicrafts

Handicrafts are the easiest way of understanding and identifying people’s tradition and aesthetic sense. The high-quality handicrafts have been produced in all the areas of Pakistan through ages. The works of Pakistani artisans have earned worldwide admiration. The handicrafts industry exists in most of the towns, cities, and villages of Pakistan, which is a source of providing employment to the people on the one hand and a source of enrichment of Pakistani culture.

In Sindh, glass cut work on clothes, Sindhi Ajrak, cotton weaving, dyeing and block printing, colorful sheets (chadors) are very prominent and appreciated. Karachi is famous for ornaments and decoration pieces, which are made of shells and stones. Embroidery and glass cut work done in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is of high quality. Many cities of Punjab are famous for their Khaises, Daris, and bed sheets, which are woven in two colors, thick threads, and khaddar. Multani camel skin lamps and painted vessels of Bahawalpur show artistic and designed work of the people of the area. Chiniot is popular for engraved furniture. The Balochi glass work and embroidery of Balochistan is an excellent artistic work. The handicrafts of Pakistan are also a source of earning great foreign exchange.

Q.7) Describe the importance of festivals as a part of our culture.

Answer:

Culture forms an important element of the social life of a man and refers to the pattern of human activity. It has emerged as a means of using symbols to construct social identity and maintain coherence within a social group to rely exclusively on the pre-human ways of building community. Edward Tyler defines the culture as:

“Culture is related to all types of knowledge and arts, laws and beliefs, traditions and customs. It is also related to the thoughts and actions of humans.”

Importance of Festivals as Part of Culture:

The land of Pakistan is remembered as the land of Muslim Sufis and Saints because a great number of Muslim Sufis started their Islamic Teachings in the region of Pakistan. Moreover, Pakistan is a Muslim populated country; therefore, many festivals and fairs bear a religious imprint and are held in Pakistan every year. These occasions provide entertainment and joy to the people of Pakistan. These festivals include Eid-ul-Fiter, Eid-ul-Azha, Eid-Milad-un-Nabi, Shab-e-Meraj, and Shab-e-Baraat etc.

1)    Eid-ul-Fitr:

It is celebrated on the first Shawwal according to the Islamic Calendar. Eid-ul-Fitr is a reward in the form of blessings of Allah to those Muslims who fasts in the whole month of Ramadan. On Eid-ul-Fitr, people wear good dresses, eat sweets, deserts and exchange gifts. The rich also help poor people with cash and gifts.

2)    Eid-ul-Azha:

It is celebrated on the 10th of the month of Zil-Hajj in the memory of the great sacrifice of Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S) when he offered to sacrifice the life of his dearest son, Hazrat Ismail (A.S) to fulfill the decree of Almighty Allah. People sacrifice animals and distribute the meat among their relatives, friends, neighbors and the poor on Eid-ul-Azha. The sacrifice is offered for three days i.e.10, 11, and 12 of Zil-Hajj.

3)    Eid Milad-un-Nabi:

Eid Milad-un-Nabi is celebrated on 12th of the Islamic month of Rabi-ul-Awwal with great love and devotion. It is celebrated to express happiness on the birth of our Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.). Homes, streets, and bazaars are decorated and illuminated on the event of Eid-Milad-un-Nabi (S.A.W). In addition, Religious meetings are also held in Masajid and homes. It is celebrated with great devotion and zeal.

4)    The celebration of Non-Muslim Festivals:

The non-Muslim citizens also participate in the celebrations of Muslim festivals but they have their own festivals. Christians celebrate the birth of Hazrat Isa (Jesus Christ) on 25 December and Easter festival in April. Similarly, Hindu and Sikhs also celebrate their festivals of Diwali, Ram Leela, Holi, Rakhi Bandhan, and Besakhi etc. Pakistani people also share their feelings of happiness and festivity of non-Muslim community.

5)    Fairs:

Fairs are the features of Pakistani culture. Normally these fairs are held on the eve of the Urs (birth or death anniversary) of great saints and Sufis. A large number of people travel from distant places and participate in these fairs. In rural areas, some fairs are also held after the harvesting season. These fairs are great events for meeting friends, shopping and promoting economic activities.

The most famous fairs of Pakistan are:

  • Urs of Hazrat Data Ganj Baksh, Lahore, Punjab
  • Urs of Hazrat Mian Mir, Lahore, Punjab
  • therefore of Shah Rukn Alam, Multan, Punjab
  • Urs of Hazrat Sachal Sarmast, Daraza, Sindh etc.

Conclusion:

The fairs and festivals are valuable assets of any culture. These events help in enhancing the social and economic progress of Pakistan. These religious and cultural events also strengthen cultural relations and prove useful in creating national cohesion and unity.

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