History of Pakistan Pakistan Studies 9th Notes Chapter 4 in English Short question | Long question.
Pakistan Studies 9th Notes Chapter 4 Short question | Long question
Q.2 i) Mention the three items due to which establishment of Pakistan was an important event?
The establishment of Pakistan on 14 August 1947 remind the struggle in the history of Asia, which aimed not only to get rid of the long British slavery but the establishment of a new Islamic Country in Indo-Pak subcontinent. The establishment of Pakistan is considered an important event due to the following causes:
- Establishment of Pakistan by constitutional and political efforts.
- Liberation from British slavery
- Establishment of a new state with the name of Pakistan in British India.
Q.2 ii) What were the golden principles highlighted by Quaid-e-Azam to solve the initial problems of Pakistan?
The first Governor General of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam not only made constitutional efforts in the freedom movement and for the establishment of Pakistan but also made the country stable by working hard. Some guiding principles highlighted by Quaid-e-Azam are:
- He not only persuaded the people to be patient but also took practical step for the settlement and the rehabilitation of refugees.
- He specified a great part of the Budget for the defense of the country and tried to solve the disputes with India and Afghanistan peacefully.
- Quaid-e-Azam in his address on 13 June 1948 advised the people to avoid the provincial and racial prejudice. He instructed the civil servants to perform duties as servant of the people, and adopt such attitude that the people may feel that you are not the rulers but servant of the nation.
- Quaid-e-Azam together with Liquate Ali Khan determined some guiding principles which aimed the establishment of a society based on equality and social justice to make strong the status of Pakistan.
- Quaid-e-Azam played a vital role in inclination of young generation towards education. He tried to give feelings to the youth that the young generation is the future of a nation. He insisted upon the young people to give attention only to education and to avoid the agitation politics for the prosperity and existence of the country.
Q.2 iii) What decision was taken for the accession of the states at the time of partition of India?
There were 560 princely states in British India before partition but according to Third June plan 1947; these states were given an option to live independently or to accede with either one of the two states, Pakistan or India. Under this principle, Bahawalpur, Makran, Qallat, and States of K.P.K. Province acceded to Pakistan. In addition, the states of Junagadh and Manawader decided accession to Pakistan. However, some of these states, which wanted to accede to Pakistan or remained independent, were forcibly annexed by India. Hyderabad was a prosperous and densely populated state of India. Its population consisted of Hindu Majority but its ruler Nizam was a Muslim. The Nizam was inclined to make Hyderabad an independent state but India blockade the State entered the troops in Hyderabad and State was forcibly acceded to India by force. In addition, immediately after the Partition Plan was announced, the Congress leaders and the Rajas of the states neighboring Kashmir, especially those of the Patiala and Kapurthala started exerting pressure on the Maharaja of Kashmir for the accession of Kashmir to India, which he did. In this way, a larger portion of Kashmir territory was made a part of India, against the will of the majority of her population.
Q.2 iv) Discuss the points of the resolution of Security Council for the solution of Kashmir Issue?
The Radcliff Award included the district of Gurdaspur in Indian territory at the time of partition, which gave access to Kashmir that was the only land routes that connected India with Kashmir passed through Pathan Kot, a Tehsil of district Gurdaspur. If Gurdaspur were not made part of India, there would be no land access for India to reach Kashmir. In January 1948, India took the issue to the United Nations and made a commitment to hold a referendum in Kashmir. The Security Council declared plebiscite as the only solution to decide the fate of Kashmir and passed two resolutions on 12 August 1948 and on 5 January 1949, which were accepted by both Pakistan and India Governments. Following are the main points of those resolutions:
- War may be stopped immediately and a cease-fire line may be drawn between held Kashmir and Azad Kashmir under the supervision of a United Nations Commission.
- Both the Governments may withdraw their troops from Kashmir.
- A referendum may be managed under the supervision of the United Nations.
Q.2 v) Discuss the Objective Resolution and its importance?
The Objective Resolution is one of the most eminent documents in the constitutional history of Pakistan. It was the first and initial problem for Pakistan, after the division of the subcontinent, to decide the character and the constitution of Pakistan because the constitution is the sum of those laws, rules, and regulations through which administration of the state and rights and duties of the citizens are determined. Therefore, an eminent group of Ulama joined the hands to motivate the public in favour of an Islamic Constitution. Thus, the first legislative Assembly took the responsibility of framing the constitution and passed the Objective Resolution on March 12, 1949, under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan. It proclaimed that the future constitution of Pakistan would be modeled on the ideology and democratic faith of Islam. The Objective Resolution has great importance because it enforced the laws in the guidance of Islam in the country and fulfilled the needs of an ideal state. The Objective Resolution remained a part of all the successive constitutions as a preamble that was framed later on. This was made the part of Pakistan constitution of 1973.
Q.2 vi) How did Ayub Khan get success in election of 1965?
In presidential election of 1965, Ayub Khan had competition with Miss Fatima Jinnah, the sister of Quaid-e-Azam. All the opposition parties were supporting Fatima Jinnah besides Council Muslim League, Jammat-e-lslami, Awami League, National Awami Party etc. In this election, Governors of East and West Pakistan, openly used apart from the Basic Democracy members, the Government Machinery in favour of Ayub Khan and against Fatima Jinnah. Fatima Jinnah was defeated in the election against Ayub Khan due to the illegal and immoral trickery, and Ayub Khan was declared successful. Effects of these elections on the future of Pakistan were not framed well.
Q.2 vii) What is the Tashkent Accord?
The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan, which was signed on 10 January 1966 on the arbitration of Soviet Union that resolved the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. This accord was signed between the Prime Minister of India Lai Bahadur Shastri and President of Pakistan Ayub Khan, at Tashkent (a city of Uzbekistan). Tashkent Conference was continued from 4 January to 10 January. Tashkent accord was consisting of 9-points. In those points besides other things, stress was given to solve the Mutual disputes between both the countries through dialogues.
Q.2 viii) How came the decline of Ayub Khan and start of the movement for democracy?
The Pak-India war of 1965 weakened the country economically on one side and on the other side, this sense was developed in East Pakistan that during the war, the central government for the defense of East Pakistan made no satisfactory arrangements. Therefore, they started a political movement for provincial autonomy under the leadership of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman. In West Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto formed his own political party with the name of Pakistan People’s Party in 1967, which launched a movement and gained popularity against Ayub Khan. In the meanwhile, the student’s agitation spread over in both parts of the country. In addition, peasants, labour, lawyers and government servants joined the movement for democracy against the government. Ayub Khan also convened Round Table Conference for dialogue with political parties but this try was unsuccessful and at last, Ayub Khan had to leave the office. He entrusted authority to the Army Chief General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan.
Q.2 ix) Discuss the main points of Legal Frame Work Order (LFO)?
General Yahya Khan ruled the country from 25 March 1969, to 20 December 1971. The military rule was lifted on 21 April 1972 when an interim constitution was promulgated. Martial law Government not only hold talks with political parties but also abolished the one unit and reinstated the old provinces. He under compulsion gave a formula, which was called the Legal framework order. A committee prepared this constitutional draft and the important points of the Legal Framework Order (LFO) were:
- Islamic ideology will be safeguarded in the future constitution.
- The Islamic Republic of Pakistan will be one federal Government, which will consist of all parts of the country.
- In the constitution, safety would be given to fundamental rights, adult franchise and freedom of judiciary.
- In the constitution maximum provincial autonomy would be given, however, the center will be strong.
- It was decided that equal opportunities would be provided to all citizen of the country for taking part in national life. In a short period through legislation, economic inequalities will be finished from all parts of Pakistan.
Q.2 x) What were the results of General elections of 1970?
The Elections of 1970 are one of the memorable works of the General Yahya Khan. Polling for the National Assembly was held on 7 December and for Provincial Assembly on 17 December. For the first time, 63 small and major parties in the country took part in elections based on Adult Franchise. They gave their program and manifesto before the people; however, as per the result of Election, Awami league won 167 seats out of 169 seats in East Pakistan and in West Pakistan, People’s Party won 87 seats out of 138. Pakistan People’s Party failed to take any seat in East Pakistan and Awami League did not take any seat in West Pakistan. In West Pakistan, Pakistan People’s Party got success in Punjab and Sind, while in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan National Awami Party and Jammat-e-Ulama Islam were succeeded.
Long Questions Pak Study Class 9 Notes in English Medium
Q.3 i) What do you know about the initial problems of Pakistan?
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan came into being on 14th August 1947 with the help of Allah Almighty, but Indian National Congress did not accept the creation of Pakistan from the core of its heart. Therefore, Pakistan faced many problems after independence such as:
1) Administrative Problems:
The Non-Muslim Government officials previously working in the areas of Pakistan shifted to India in a large number. The offices were vacated. There was an acute shortage of items of furniture, stationery, and typewriters. Most of the offices started their function in the open air. While going to India, the Hindus destroyed the official record. It caused enormous difficulties in office work.
2) Distribution of Assets:
The Indian rulers did injustice in the proportional distribution of the assets too. At the time of partition, four hundred billion Rupees were deposited in “Reserve Bank” of United India. This amount was to be divided between both the countries. The proportional share of Pakistan was Rs 750 million but India issued an amount of Rs 700 million by the continuous demands of Pakistan. The remaining amount of Rs. 50 million is still to be paid by India. The representatives of both the countries held a meeting in November 1947 and an agreement was made. Both the countries confirmed the agreement but it has not been implemented so far.
3) Indus Basin Treaty:
The partition of the Sub-continent affected the natural flow of the rivers as Radcliffe handed the Headworks of the River Indus and its tributaries i.e. Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas of Pakistan to India. India took the revenge of division and stopped the water channel of these rivers in 1948, which destroyed the Hundred Acres crops of Pakistan. The supply of water was restored after the agreement, however, Pakistan took the issue to the United Nations for the permanent solution of the water. At least, with the help of the World Bank, the Indus Basin Treaty was brought between the two countries in 1960. According to this treaty, the eastern rivers, i.e. Sutlej, Bias, and Ravi came into the share of India, while three western Rivers, i.e. Chenab, Jhelum, and Indus were given to Pakistan.
4) Rehabilitation of Refugees:
After the establishment of Pakistan, the Muslims living in India decided to come into their new homeland as they found their lives unsafe in India. Millions of families migrated towards Pakistan and left all of their belongings in India. These homeless, ruined, miserable, and distressed Muslims were accommodated temporarily in refugee camps. Rehabilitation of the refugees was a great challenge because more than 6 million Muslims were uprooted from their homes and forced to migrate to Pakistan.
The most important problem for the newly established state was constitution making for the country because the Constitution is a set of rules and regulations through which administration of the state is run and the rights and duties of the citizens are determined. Therefore, Quadi-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah amended the British Government of India Act 1935 and Act of 1947 with certain amendments as an interim constitution. He also formed a Constituent Assembly for a new constituent.
6) Economic Problems:
The state of Pakistan faced great economic problems after its creation. The areas given to Pakistan in partition were backward in agriculture except for some districts. There was a lack of industries. Likewise, political crises and arrival of refugees further worsened the situation. However, the government of Pakistan controlled the situation with great responsibility.
The subcontinent India was divided into two major states, i.e. India and Pakistan. Hindus never wanted to divide India. Therefore, they accepted the Partition as impractical and the existence of Pakistan as transitory. They created such great troubles for Pakistan that the new state would collapse. However, under the able leadership and guidance of Quaid-e-Azam and other Muslim Leaders, Pakistan overcame these problems very soon and stabilized its economy.
Q.3 ii) Discuss the causes of the enforcement of Martial Law by Ayub Khan.
The constitution of 1956 had certain flaws. Many politicians tried to remedy through sincere efforts but unfortunately, it had been started exploiting by politicians for their personal interests. The first President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza only for his personal interest abrogated the constitution of 1956 and removed the Prime Minister Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy. He appointed Ministers and Chief Ministers on personal likes and dislikes, dissolved the legislatures, and banned the political parties. He promulgated martial law in the country on 8 October 1958 and appointed the army Chief General Ayub Khan as Chief Martial Law Administrator but only 20 days later General Ayub Khan forced Iskander Mirza to resign the office of President and was exiled. He himself assumed the power and political system was abolished accordingly.
Causes of Promulgation of Martial Law in Pakistan:
Martial law was promulgated in Pakistan on 8 October 1958 due to the certain reasons, which were:
1) Worst Economic Condition of the Country:
Political stability is necessary for the economic stability of the county, which was becoming worse in the country day by day. “Pakistan is an agricultural country” was the high claim of Government but even food items were also importing which on the one side was very costly and on the other side, there were drawbacks in the process of distribution. People were very worried due to this unequal distribution of food. Besides smuggling, black marketing and hoarding were also at the peak.
2) Political Disorder:
Political leaders with common people made efforts to move the country towards development when Pakistan came into being but up to 1957 political conditions of the country had been much deteriorated and the position of political differences was that different ministries of the Government were not functioning properly. Prime Ministers in the country were changing every day and the rulers postponed the election in the country for their own interest. There was a nominal parliamentary system in the country but the prime minister had no status. This state of affairs was creating the condition of tension in both parts of Pakistan i.e. East and West Pakistan and at last, the result of such political mismanagement came in the shape of the martial law.
3) Worst Trade Conditions:
The Trade condition was also affected badly like political and economic conditions. Profiteering and adulteration in foodstuff had been common. Pakistan currency was devalued and Pakistan became dependent on western countries for the completion of all developmental projects. In addition, industrial development was in very slow motion because strikes, lockouts, and industrial conflicts were the daily routine matters. As a result, the people become distrustful from the rulers.
4) Social Defects:
The effect of political and economic mismanagement in the country was creating sharply the feelings of strangeness. Provincial prejudice was enhancing. The distance between both parts of the country further spread over. Therefore, the people wished for a solid change, which may cause for the democracy, equality, economic and social happiness of the people.
5) Miscellaneous Problems:
The sense of responsibility was missing in the politician’s role and bureaucracy along with the weaknesses in political institutions in the country. They preferred their own interests on the national and public interests. The Judiciary was also not commendable. Moreover, the pending problems of the country, for example, the rehabilitation of refugees, canal water dispute and the Kashmir issue remained unsolved and no one tried for their solution. In these circumstances, Iskander Mirza abolished the constitution and promulgated martial law in the country, which badly shocked the democratic process.
Pakistan is a country, which has been largely ruined by civil and military dictators and they have enjoyed their terms one after another. Since Pakistan’s independence, many Constitutional problems have stemmed from the political leaders of the state. They had done a number of experiences with the names of various reforms but everything looked destined to be failed. Corruption had become so widespread within the national and civic systems of administration. Therefore, President Iskander Mirza abrogated the constitution and declared the Martial Law in the country.
Q.3 iii) Highlight the constitutions of 1956 and 1962 and compare their main points?
The process of constitution making started with the passing of the Objective Resolution after the establishment of Pakistan by the Constitution Assembly. It submitted its first report in September 1950 but all the people of the country rejected this report. The Committee submitted its second report before the National Assembly during the rule of Khan Nazim-ud-Din. This time the West Wing criticized and rejected the report. Therefore, the Second Constitution Assembly was formed in June 1955. The Assembly passed the One Unit Act and it removed the greatest hurdle in the way of constitution making. The constitution was finally passed in February 1956 and enforced on 23 March 1956 in the country, which worked until October 8, 1958, when Martial Law was proclaimed.
Salient Features of the Constitution of 1956:
The salient features of the Constitution of 1956 were:
- Constitution conferred equal basic rights to all citizens. These rights include the right of the safety of life and property, freedom to write and speak, freedom of gathering and the right to serve.
- All the adult citizens were given the right to vote.
- There was a provision of the establishment of National Economic Council and National Commission in the constitution in which Federal and Provincial Governments were given representation.
- The constitution established a Federal system of Government. The separate list of powers for center and provinces was given. In addition, such a list was given on which both center and provinces could make legislation.
- It was decided in the constitution to adopt a parliamentary system but such powers are given to the president, which were negated the principles of the superiority of the parliament.
- The name of the country will be the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
- According to the constitution, the evils of Riba, adultery, gambling and drink must be eradicated.
- TheIslamic institutions of Zakat, Aukaf, and Masjid would be properly organized.
- It was mentioned in the constitution to protect the rights of minorities and grant them religious freedom.
- According to the constitution, the friendly relation shall be established with Muslim states.
Iskandar Mirza became Governor-General on 16 October 1955, was actually representing two strong institutions of Pakistan i.e. army and bureaucracy. He became president with the enforcement of a new constitution and removed four Prime Ministers one by one in two years. With the removal of fourth Prime Minister Feroz Khan Noon, Iskandar Mirza annulled the constitution of 1956 and imposed the martial law in the country.
Constitution of 1962:
President Ayub Khan formed a Constitutional Commission under the leadership of Justice Shahab-ud-Din. This Commission submitted different constitutional recommendations to the Government in 1961. However, the majority of the recommendations of this commission were not acceptable to president Ayub Khan himself, therefore, he framed another constitutional committee, which framed the second constitution of Pakistan. Thus, Ayub Khan promulgated the new constitution on June 8, 1962, i.e. the date on which Martial law was lifted and Civil Government restored.
Salient Features of Constitution of 1962:
The salient features of the constitution of 1962 were:
- The original constitution did not contain a list of fundamental rights but later a list of fundamental rights was included in the constitution. The most important of these were freedom of speech and expression, association, peaceful assembly, religion and protection of life and property.
- The Presidential form of Government was introduced in the country.
- Pakistan was declared as one federation consisted of two provinces i.e. East Pakistan and West Pakistan.
- Both Urdu and Bengali were recognized as the national languages of Pakistan and English was declared as the official language of the country.
- The head of the state, i.e. President must be Muslim.
- It was mentioned in the constitution that no law may be legislated against Quran and Sunnah.
- It was mentioned in the constitution to make proper arrangement for the compulsory education of the Quran and Sunnah.
- According to the constitution, the evils of Riba, adultery, gambling, and drink must be eradicated.
- According to the constitution, the friendly relation shall be established with Muslim states.
The Comparison of the Constitutions of 1956 and 1962:
|Constitution of 1956||Constitution of 1962|
|Constitution of 1956 introduced the parliamentary form of Government.||Constitution of 1962 introduced the presidential form of Government.|
|Constitution of 1956 introduced direct election.||Constitution of 1962 introduced indirect election|
|There was no supreme judicial council in the constitution of 1956.||Constitutions of 1962 introduced a new institution Supreme Judicial Council|
|There were no Islamic institutes in the constitution of 1956.||Constitution of 1962 introduced two Islamic institutions i.e. Islamic ideology and Islamic Research institutions.|
|In the constitution of 1956, the powers were reasonable.||Under the constitution of 1962 president had great power.|
The constitution of 1956 is the first constitution of Pakistan after independence. It was the first constitution in which Pakistan was proclaimed officially as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Islamic way of life was mandatory but the constitution of 1956 failed due to the personal interest of the politicians. In the constitution of 1962, the President had vast powers and he was virtually a dictator. It seems that the main objective of the constitution of 1962 was not to give the nation a real democratic constitution, but its objective was to keep military rule continued.
Q.3 iv) What do you know about the government and reforms of General Ayub Khan?
Muhammad Ayub Khan was the first military ruler of Pakistan, serving as the second President of Pakistan. He became the Pakistan Army’s first native Commander in Chief in 1951 and was the youngest full general and self-appointed Field Marshal in Pakistan’s military history. The first time military was directly involved in politics of the country when Ayub Khan, a serving Commander-in-Chief, was inducted into Muhammad Ali Bogra’s Federal Cabinet in 1954 and was given the portfolio of Defense. On October 7, 1958, Iskander Mirza enforced the first Martial Law in Pakistan with the help of Ayub Khan. Ayub Khan was designated as the Chief Martial Law Administrator. However, the two leaders could not work together for long. Ayub Khan snatched away Mirzas’ powers and assumed charge as the President of Pakistan.
The system of Government:
General Muhammad Ayub Khan thought that parliamentary system of democracy remained unsuccessful to solve the problems of the people of Pakistan, for the solution of difficulties, for the development of the country and political stability. In his opinion, parliamentary system of democracy was not suitable for the countries like Pakistan because on one side, there was lack of political awareness and on the other side, there was poverty, ignorance, and illiteracy.
Ayub Khan enforced the Basic Democracies Systems in October 1959 and introduced a new Political government System in the Country. It had four stages i.e. Union Council, Thana/Tehsil Council, District Council, Divisional and Provincial Council. According to this system, the population consists of 1000 people in urban or rural areas can elect their representatives. Moreover, under the constitution of 1962, all the Basic Democracies Members adopted the status of an Electoral College and thus the BD Members used to elect the President and members of National and Provincial Assemblies.
This election procedure was greatly criticized because the Government used the BD-members for the personal aims without any doubt and resultantly the BD-Scheme could not become a democratic system. Therefore, the people disliked this system and hence with the decline of Ayub Khan, this system was abolished.
Reforms of the Ayub Khan Regime:
General Muhammad Ayub Khan introduced many reforms for the betterment of the people and for the prosperity of the country. The major reforms among them are:
i) Agricultural Reforms.
ii) Economic Reforms.
1. Agricultural Reforms.
Pakistan is an agricultural country. Therefore the new Government formed a commission on 31st October 1958 which gave a report to the Government on the solution of agricultural problems and its improvement in January 1959. The Government acted upon at once and the following reforms were imposed.
- The government finished all the feuds.
- The limit of possession of land for any person was retained as 500 acres canal irrigated and 1000 acres in non-Barani land. In addition, the farmer can keep with him safe 150 acres for gardens.
- The Rights of the peasants were safeguarded and forced labour from the tillers was strongly prohibited.
- The area of land with the farmer beyond limit was taken into custody by the Government and they were given in return the government Bonds
- The inland consolidation the revolutionary steps were also taken small pieces of land were consolidated and made able fort he modern cultivation.
Though there were some defects in the land reforms of Government yet for the time being the agricultural reform brought improvement in the economy of the peasants and the poor class was admitted. The farmers and peasants were given tube wells and tractors on easy loans. These steps were named by the Government Ayub Khan government as green revolution.
2. Economic Reforms:
Ayub Khan took such initiatives for the economic development in Pakistan that the decade of 1960 was called the decade of development and his great achievements. The Government adopted a comprehensive plan for the installation of new industries. The private sector was encouraged to establish medium and small-scale industries in Pakistan. During this period economic development can be estimated from the second five-year developmental plan. As a result of reforms of Ayub Khan, the development in the country is as.
- National income increased by 30 percent.
- Exports increased by seven percent annually.
- Industrial sector progressed by more than 40 percent.
- In the agriculture sector development was more than 15 percent. During that period the Indigenous industries were insisted to use of more local raw materials so that forcing exchange could be saved.
Ayub Khan was a military officer who later became the president of the country. When he came into power, the evil of corruption, misconduct, inefficiency, and subversive activities were on the top. Therefore, he introduced a comprehensive scheme of local government, popularly known as Basic Democracies. In addition, Ayub Khan’s era is known for the industrialization in the country. He introduced labor reforms, which showed his interest to work for the betterment of the labor class. He created an environment where the private sector was encouraged to establish medium and small-scale industries in Pakistan. Therefore, the National Growth Rate of the country was increased.
Q.3 v) Discuss the main points of the Muslim Family Law Ordinance and System of Basic Democracies?
President General Muhammad Ayub Khan ruled almost ten years. Many reforms were implemented during his Government. The country made much progress in the field of industry. According to the 1962 constitution, all the powers vested with the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Ayub Khan thought that parliamentary system of democracy remained unsuccessful to solve the problems of the people of Pakistan, for the solution of difficulties, for the development of the country and political stability. Therefore, Ayub Khan enforced the Basic Democracies Systems in October 1959 and introduce a new Political System in the Country. This was such a system of Local Government, which started from downward and went upward. It had four stages i.e. Union Council, Thana/Tehsil Council, District Council, Divisional and Provincial Council.
Aims of Basic Democracies System:
The Main Aims of this System were:
- To provide opportunities for development at the local or basic level.
- To provide Training to the public representatives by all the relevant officers together with Bureaucracy.
- To make agree to all Public representatives and relevant offices to work together.
The System of Basic Democracies:
According to this system, on the lower level, in urban or rural areas where the population consists of 1000 people, they can elect their representatives. Union Council was struggling for the development of the area, development of Agriculture and rule of law. Union Council used to receive local Taxes on certain goods but the activities and procedure of election were criticized due to the reason that the Deputy Commissioner controlled all the works of Union Council and all the representatives of the Union Council were indebted to those decisions.
The benefit of this system was that the public representative were aware of their problems at the local level and opportunities were available for the solution of problems. In 1960, the Union Council representative elected Ayub Khan as a President of Pakistan. Moreover, under the constitution of 1962, all the Basic Democracies Members adopted the status of an Electoral College, and thus the BD Members used to elect the President and members of National and Provincial Assemblies.
Reaction on the system of Basic Democracies:
This election procedure was greatly criticized because the members of National and Provincial Assemblies elected in this manner could not be called the actual public representatives, as it was easy to put official pressure on 80000-members. The government used the BD-members for the personal aims without any doubt and resultantly the BD-Scheme could not become a democratic system. Instead of political training of people at the lower level and social reform, this system became a cause of further tension. Educated and intellectuals considered this system as a source of keeping in power the ruling party i.e. Convention Muslim League or Ayub Khan by legal or illegal method. Therefore, the people disliked this system and hence with the decline of Ayub Khan, this system was abolished.
Muslim Family Law Ordinance:
One of the important initiatives and reforms during the Ayub Khan’s regime was the Muslim Family Law Ordinance. It was enforced in the shape of an ordinance in 1961. Muslim Family Laws Ordinance is an Ordinance to give effect to certain recommendations of the commission on marriage and Family Laws. Its main points are the following: –
- Entry of Marriage was made compulsory in Union Council.
- The willingness and permission of the first wife were necessary for the second marriage for any male.
- The traditional method of divorce of three times together was abandoned in the law for divorce and it was given a legal shape.
- Arbitration Councils were established at the Union Council level with the following functions:
1. To make patch-up between wife and husband in case of divorce.
2. To determine the responsibility of supporting the wife and children.
3. Females were provided more legal safety with this ordinance.
4. Imam and Khateeb were appointed as Registrar for the entry of marriage in the Union Council.
5. A group of religious scholars opposed this ordinance. They declared that the ordinance was against the teachings of Islam but with the passage of time, the majority of the people accepted it.
Pakistan’s first efforts at civilian rule ended with the imposition of martial law under President Iskander Mirza, enforced by General Muhammad Ayub Khan. The people of Pakistan were tired of political gridlock and economic instability, therefore; they accepted the change of basic democracies system and Muslim Family Law Ordinance introduced by Ayub Khan that promised stability and forward movement.
Q.3 vi) What were the causes of the fall of East Pakistan.
The President of Pakistan General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan held free and fair elections in December 1970. The Awami League won the elections of 1970 based on Six Points Agenda. Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman mounted pressure to establish his government while Pakistan Peoples’ Party opposed it strongly. In the meantime, Sheikh Mujeeb-Ur- Rahman launched the Non-Cooperation Movement. Therefore, General Tikka Khan was appointed as Governor of East Pakistan to control the situation but it continued to deteriorate every day. In addition, Sheikh Mujeeb-ur Rahman established a parallel government with the unlawful help of India, which worsened the situation. The civil war reached its peak. India was fully supporting Awami League and sending its miscreants to East Pakistan who killed the Pakistani soldiers and ordinary citizens. Thus, thousands of citizens of East Pakistan migrated towards India. The Indian Government pretended to support these migrants and attacked East Pakistan. Subsequently, India succeeded in achieving its objectives and East Pakistan appeared on the map of the world with the name of Bangladesh on 16 December 1971.
The Causes of Separation of East Pakistan:
East Pakistan was the right wing of the Federation of Pakistan. This wing separated in 1971 due to internal and external reasons. Thus, Pakistan was cut into two pieces. The causes of separation of East Pakistan are:
1) The Problem of Geographical Location:
The East and West part of Pakistan were at a distance of 1600 km and India was in between the two parts. This physical distance not only created many difficulties in defence of both the parts but also created the problem of the means of transport.
2) Language Issue:
The issue of Bengali language played a vital role in disintegrating the National Unity. After the establishment of Pakistan, only Urdu was adopted as National language, but the majority of the East Pakistanis speak Bengali. Therefore, the people in East Pakistan demonstrated and launched a movement in favour of Bengali.
3) Deviation from Democratic Values:
The first constitution was prepared for a long period of 9 years in Pakistan due to which different pillars of the government opposed each other. Hardly a constitution was prepared in 1956, but that was abolished after some time and a never-ending military dictatorship was becoming strong in the country. Awami league, the winning party of the 1970 election was deprived of the power by one pretext or another, which resulted in the separation of East Pakistan.
4) Provincial Prejudices:
East Pakistan was one of the five units of Pakistan but politicians of East Pakistan demanded their representation in the National Assembly according to the proportion of their population. The politicians of East Pakistan and West Pakistan stood against each other on this issue, which caused the partition of the country into two parts.
5) Economic Disparity:
The Bengalis were of the opinion that their economic backwardness will end with the establishment of Pakistan but their dreams remained incomplete because the economy of Pakistan was not stable from the very first day of independence.
6) Six Points Formula of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rahman:
The people of East Pakistan were not pleased with the undemocratic attitude of the politicians of West Pakistan. At last, the six-point formula of Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman became very popular among the people because he wanted that provinces should be made separate states and semi-federation state should be established, which led to the separation of East Pakistan.
7) Military Action:
Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman announced revolt on 23 March 1971, which started the armed struggle and political restlessness in East Pakistan. Even the flags of Bangladesh were hoisted. Therefore, the government of West Pakistan took the action, which resulted in the massacre of many innocent citizens. Thus, the people of East Pakistan became the enemies of the army.
8) Conspiracies of Big Powers:
The Soviet Union and America took the advantage of the political situation of Pakistan and started interfering in the matters of East Pakistan with the help of India. India not only imparted military training to the escaped refugees from East Pakistan but also provided them weapons. America was also involved in these conspiracies because when Israel supplied American manufactured armaments to India, America did not object to it. Therefore, the separation of East Pakistan was the secret agreement of big powers.
9) The hijacking of Ganga Airplane:
Two Indian agents hijacked an Indian plane ‘Ganga’ and landed it at Lahore on 30 January 1971. The hijackers pretended to be Kashmiri Mujahids. The Indian government banned all air traffic from crossing Indian Territory while flying between the East and West Pakistan. Thus, all communications between the two Wings were terminated and the Pakistan Army had to face defeat because there was no aerial protection.
The separation of East Pakistan was a great setback to Pakistan. By 1970, sentiments for National unity had weakened in East Pakistan to the extent that constant conflict between the two Wings dramatically erupted into mass civil disorder. Moreover, various misunderstandings and lack of loyal leadership between East & West Pakistan led to the major conflicts, which ended the unity of Pakistan and Pakistan was disintegrated into two wings.