Pakistan Studies 9th Notes Chapter 3 in English Short question | Long question

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Pakistan Studies 9th Notes Chapter 3 in English Medium

Q.2 i) Discuss the location of Pakistan and its importance.

Pakistan is located in the northwestern part of South Asia between 24o to 37o north latitudes and between 61o to 76o East longitudes. It has an area of 796096 square kilometers. Pakistan shares a 592 km long border with the People’s Republic of China in the northeast, which is connected through the Karakoram Highway. In the West, the Durand line separates Pakistan from Afghanistan, which is about 2250 km long. Pakistan provides transit Trade to Afghanistan and the Central Asian States. Pakistan has nearly 1600 km long common borders with India, which was demarcated by Radcliffe Commission at the time of Indian partition. In the West, Pakistan also shares the 832 km long border with Iran. Pakistan is also in close proximity to the oil-producing countries of the Middle East and Central Asia. In addition, the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean lies in the South of Pakistan. Therefore, most of the trade between eastern and western countries carries through the Indian Ocean.

Read more: Pakistan Studies 9th Notes Chapter 1 English Short question | Long question

Q.2 ii) Describe the four boundaries of Pakistan.

Pakistan is located in the midst of the important countries of Asia i.e. Russia, China, and India. Pakistan has a 592 km long border with the People’s Republic of China in the northeast. In the West, the Durand line separates Pakistan from Afghanistan about 2250 km long border. In West Pakistan also shares the 832 km long border with Iran. Pakistan has nearly 1600km long common borders with Indian Punjab and Rajistan. The Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean lie in the South of Pakistan. Most of the trade between eastern and western countries carry through the Indian Ocean.

Q.2 iii) Write short notes on the following:

a. Plateau
b. Plains
c. Deserts
d. Coastal Areas

a)  Plateau:
Plateau is a large stretch of relatively level land that is higher than the land around it, which has at least one side of steep slope falling abruptly to the lower land. There are two plateaus in Pakistan, i.e. Pothwar Plateau and Baluchistan Plateau.
i)    The Potohar Plateau:
The Potohar Plateau is situated in the North of Islamabad between river Indus and river Jhelum. Its height is 300 to 600 meters. River Swan is the important river of this plateau.
ii)    The Baluchistan Plateau:
The Baluchistan Plateau is situated in the South West of Pakistan. Its average altitude is 600 to 3000 meters. It is a vast area of 34190 square kilometers. The Chaghi range lies to the North of this Plateau.
b)    Plains:
Plains are defined as a vast, less steep, and comparatively even surface of the land. The Indus Plain spread over a vast area is one of the important and fertile plains of the world. The Indus Plain is divided into two parts.
i)    Upper Indus Plain:
The Upper Indus Plain consists of Province of Punjab, the river Indus and its tributaries i.e. the Rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej etc. The Soil of this Plain is mostly fertile but at several points, dry hills appear above the Plain.
ii)    Lower Indus Plain:
The Lower Indus Plain covers most of the area of the Sindh province. The height of the plain decreases from 400 feet in the north to 20 feet in the South. The river flows very slowly in the plain due to its gentle slope. It starts making delta and ends up in the Sea from Thatha to the Coast of Arabian Sea.

Read more: Pakistan Studies 9th Notes Chapter 1 English Short question | Long question

c)    Deserts:
The Deserts of Pakistan is divided into Thal, Cholistan, Nara and Tharparker Deserts. Winds play a vital role in making features of these areas and the surface of these areas is covered with sand dunes. The extremely low rainfall is the special sign of the desert areas. In deserts, the underground water level is very deep. If the irrigation facilities are provided, then these barren areas can be utilized for cultivation.
d)    The Coastal Areas:
The Coastal area of Pakistan begins from Run Kutch in Sindh and stretches westward in Baluchistan to the border between Pakistan and Iran. Its total length is about 1046 Kilometers. It consists of two parts i.e. the Sindh Coast and Baluchistan Coast. In Sindh, Karachi and Port Qasim and in Baluchistan, Gawadar Port is famous ports of Pakistan. The temperature remains low in summer in these areas when cool breeze blow from sea to land.

Q.2 iv) What is the difference between weather and climate?

Climate is the long-term pattern of weather of a certain region over the period of 11 to 40 years generally. It is measured by weather conditions i.e. temperature, humidity, rainfall, winds etc. The difference between Climate and Weather is the measure of time. The weather describe the conditions of the atmosphere over a short period e.g. from day to day or week-to-week whereas the climate of a region is the average weather pattern in a specific place over a period of years. Moreover, Climate of a place or area depends upon the distance from the Equator and Sea, Altitude, direction of Winds and Mountains.

Q.2 v) What is a glacier? What are the important glaciers of Pakistan?

Glaciers are large masses of ice, which are formed by the low temperature and snowfall in high altitude for a long period. The snow is accumulated and compressed over many years, which takes the shape of thickened ice masses and begins to move downhill. The important glaciers of Pakistan are:

  1. Siachen Glacier in the Karakoram Range is about 78 kilometers long. 
  2. Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram range is about 62 kilometers long.
  3. Batura Glacier is situated in the Hunza Valley is about 57 Kilometers long. 
  4. Biafo Glacier is 67 km long glacier in the Karakoram Mountains.
  5. Biarchedi Glacier is located on the northeast of  Biarchedi Peak in Pakistan. It flows north into the Baltoro Glacier.

Many other small glaciers are found in the high mountainous regions of Pakistan apart from these glaciers. The Himalayan and Karakorum ranges are great sites of glaciers in the world after polar areas. These great reserves provide water for the whole year to River Indus and its tributaries.

Q.2 vi) Describe the river system of Pakistan.

The river system of Pakistan is very famous among the world as it is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Karakoram, the Hindu Kush, and Himalayan ranges of Tibet, Kashmir, and Northern Areas of Pakistan. There are mainly three systems of Rivers in Pakistan, i.e.
i.   The Indus River System
ii.  The Interior River System
iii. Makran Coast River System
1)    The Indus River System:
Indus is the longest and most important river in Pakistan, which is 2900 kilometers long and flows from north to southwards. The eastern tributaries of River Indus are Sutlej, Bias, Ravi, Chenab, and Jhelum whereas the western tributaries are River Gilgit, Swat, Panjkora, Kabul, Kurram, Tochi, and Balan etc. the Indus River System is one of the most fertile plains in the world.
ii)    The Interior River System:
The Interior River System flows in the southwestern Baluchistan and consists of the rivers of Raskoh and Chaghi ranges. These rivers fall into the lakes instead of the sea. The important lakes of this area are Hamun Mashkel and Hamun Lora.
iii)    Makran Coast River System:
This river system is originated from the Coastal ranges of Makran and flows southwards into the Arabian Sea. They have a very small number of tributaries. The important rivers of Makran Coast are Hub, Porali, Hangole, and Dasht.

Q.2 vii) Mention wildlife found in the Northern Areas of Pakistan.

Wildlife is an important part of an ecological community as wildlife play an important role in the environment. The wildlife is found in various kinds in the mountainous region of northern areas of Pakistan as compared to the other parts of the world. These mountainous regions provide important habitat for wildlife. Snow Leopard, Black Bear, Brown Bear, Wolf, Black Hare, Markhor, Bharal (Himalayan blue sheep), Wild Goat (Himalayan Tahr), Marcopolo Sheep, Deer and Partridge can be seen on the peaks of these mountains whereas on less high mountain slopes, monkeys, red fox, black deer, leopard, partridge, Chakor can be seen. 

Q.2 viii) What are Environmental Hazards?

The Environment is a natural world, which is affected by human activity. It includes physical features of land, climate, soil, vegetation, and other factors. Therefore, any action or process which endangers the environment is called environmental hazards. It includes pollution and natural calamities such as air, water, soil, noise pollution, earthquakes, flood, tsunamis, storm and soil erosion etc. Likewise, natural calamities such as the earthquake, Tsunami, flood, wind and rain, storm, drought, and soil erosion directly damage the environment. These environmental hazards change the environment of a place and create many problems, e.g the problem of decreasing agricultural resources, barren lands, desertification etc.  The major environmental hazards are salinity and waterlogging, deforestation, desertification and Environmental Pollution.

Long Questions Pak Study In English Medium for Class 9th

Q.3 i) Write a note on mountain ranges of Pakistan.

Pakistan is situated in the northwestern part of the Southern Asian subcontinent and occupies the Western end of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, which is bounded in the north by mountain wall of the great Himalayas. Pakistan has some of the world’s highest and most spectacular mountains within its borders such as Himalayas, Karakoram, Hindukush, Sulaiman, Toba Kakar, and Kirthar range. The Northern and Western Highlands produced by the mountain building movement extended from the Makran Coast in the south to the Pamir Plateau in the extreme north.
Mountainous Region:
The high piece of land that has rocky, uneven, and steeply surface is called a mountain. Pakistan has following mountain ranges:
1.    Northern Mountains:
These mountains consist of parallel ranges in the East-West direction. The slopes of these mountains are covered with evergreen coniferous forests. Northern areas of Pakistan, Azad Kashmir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Northern areas of Punjab lie in these mountains. Beautiful valleys of Murree, Gilgit, and Kaghan also lie in these mountains. These mountains are divided into two parts.
        i.    The Himalayan Range
        ii.    The Karakorum Range
i)    The Himalayas:
Pakistan has a series of world’s highest mountains collectively in the north-east of Pakistan which is known as ‘The Himalayas’. These ranges of Mountains are situated in the northern side of the subcontinent about 700 km in length and are called the ‘roof of the world’. In Pakistan, there are three minor ranges of these mountains, i.e.

  • The Shiwalik Range:
    It is low in altitude and is situated in the north of the plain area of Punjab having an altitude of 600 to 1200 meters extend over to the Southern part of Hazara, Attock and some areas of Rawalpindi. Their western range is in Pakistan whereas the major part of them is in India.
  • The Lesser Himalayas or Pir Punjal Range:
    The Pir Punjal Ranges lie further to the North of the Shiwalik Range. This range has an altitude of 1800 to 4600 meters. It includes the areas of Battagram, Mansehra, and Abbottabad. In the winter, these hills remain snowcapped but summers are very pleasant, vegetation and forests grow in abundance and enhance the scenic beauty of the place.
  • The Central Himalayas:
    This great mountain range of the world lies in the North of Pakistan at an average height of 6000 meters. The highest Peak of this Range is Nanga Parbat, which is 8126 meters high. “Lake Saif-ul-Malook” is a popular tourist spot in this region. The Kashmir Valley lies between the Pir Panjal and the great Himalayas.

ii)    The Karakoram Range:
This mountainous range lies to the north of the Himalayas, which has an average altitude of 6100 meters whereas K-2 is the highest Peak of this range, which has an altitude of 8611 meters. After Mount Everest, this is the second highest Peak of the World. These Mountain Peaks remain covered with snow throughout the year. In this range, there are at least 20 glaciers of more than 20 kilometers in length. There are some passes, which are the only source of traffic between valleys. However, they are often closed in winter due to snowfall. Shahrah-e-Resham, which is also known as Karakoram Highway passes through this range and leads to China via Khunjerab Pass.
2.    North Western and Western Mountainous Regions:
These mountains spread in the Western and North Western parts of Pakistan. These mountains are less high as compared to the Eastern Mountains. Some of these ranges make a border between Pakistan and Afghanistan. The difficult passes in these mountainous ranges are the sources of traffic. Western Mountains are further divided into the following important ranges, i.e.

  • The Hindu Kush Range
  • The Koh-e-Sufaid
  • Waziristan Hills
  • The Suleiman Range
  • Kirthar Range

i)    The Hindukush Range:
The Hindu Kush Range is situated in Chitral and Western part of Northern areas. Trichmir is the highest peak of this range and the River Chitral is an important river of the Hindukush Range. These peaks remain snowcapped throughout the year. Due to the height and harsh conditions, only a few Passes are the routes of transportation between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Among them, the Khyber Pass is the important trade route between Peshawar Valley and Kabul.
ii)    The Koh-e-Sufaid:
The average altitude of this mountain range is 3600 meters. Seeka Ram Sar is the highest Peak of this range. Parachinar is situated in the foot of this range. Koh-e-Sufaid stretches from east to west in the south of River Kabul. These mountainous ranges are known as White Mountains (Safed Koh) because their peaks are always covered with snow.
iii)    Waziristan Hills:
The average altitude of these hills is 1500 to 3000 meters. There are fertile valleys in these hills. Miran Shah and Wana are located in this region. The Waziristan Hills lie between the Gomel and Kurram rivers along the Safed Koh. This area is rich in mineral wealth.
iv)    The Suleiman Range:
This mountain range starts from River Gomal and spread to the East up to 450 Kilometers. Takht-e-Suleiman is the highest Peak in this range with a height of 3847 meters.
v)    Kirthar Range:
This range is in the south of Koh-e-Suleiman in the North-South direction, separates Lower Indus Basin from Baluchistan. This mountain range is about 400 kilometers long and 30 kilometers wide.
The mountain regions are considered as a lifeline for the people of the down country in Pakistan due to the perpetual supply of fresh water for daily use. All of Pakistan’s five major rivers and its tributaries originate in these mountain regions and receives its waters from the glaciers and snow-clad mountains. These magnificent mountain ranges are the highest and most precipitous mountain peaks in the world.

Q.3 ii) Pakistan is divided into how many climatic regions? Describe each one in detail.

The average condition of temperature, humidity, air pressure and rainfall of a place for a long time (Average 30 years) is called climate, whereas the condition of weather for a short time i.e. a day or a week is called weather. The climate of a place or area depends upon the distance from the Equator and Sea, Altitude, direction of Winds and Mountains. Pakistan is situated in the Sub-Tropical region above the Equator. Only southern winds become the cause of rain in some regions at the end of summer and winter while the northern and western mountains decrease the intensity of the cold wind, which comes from the north in winter. In the high mountainous area, the weather changes with the altitude. The variation in global average temperature over time is associated with climate change. These changes can be caused by internal or external variations to the earth e.g. global warming, human activities, and variations in sunlight intensity, heat waves, altitude, and location.
Climatic Zones of Pakistan:
Pakistan is situated in the Sub-Tropical region. Therefore, its climate is hot and dry. However, Seacoast, Monsoon, Western winds, and high mountains bring variations in this dry and hot climate. Pakistan can be divided into eight regions on the basis of climate, i.e.

  1. Highlands.
  2. Humid Mountainous Region
  3. Semi-Dry Mountainous Region
  4. Semi Humid Plain Region
  5. Semi-Dry Plain Area
  6. Semi-Arid Region
  7. Arid Region
  8. Coastal Areas

1)    High Lands:
Highland zone comprises the northern and the northwestern mountains region. This region consists of the areas of very high altitudes. It is the coldest region of the country. The mountain peaks remain snow-covered throughout the year on very high altitudes. The most of the parts of the region have a heavy snowfall and frost while the summer remains short, mild, and pleasant. This region contains Northern areas and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
2)    Humid Mountainous Region:
These are the areas of low altitude mountains, where heavy rainfall occurs due to monsoon and western winds. However, the temperature remains moderate in summer. The famous areas for tourism in this region are Murree, Gilgit, and Parachinar.
3)    Semi-Dry Mountainous Region:
These are mountainous areas of low altitude and have rainfalls and snow falls in winter due to western winds whereas summer is moderate and dry. This region consists of areas of Quetta, Qilla Saifullah, and Qalat.
4)    Semi Humid Plain Region:
It includes the Plain area of Daman-e-Koh, where a heavy amount of monsoon rainfall occurs. In summer, the temperature is high and monsoon rains fall whereas the winter season is dry and moderate. This region includes Sialkot, Gujrat, and Islamabad.
5)    Semi-Dry Plain Area:
In this region, rainfall is low due to low monsoon and western winds while the temperature is very high in summer. Winter remains dry and moderate in the semi-dry plain areas. It consists of the fertile plain areas of Northern Punjab and Peshawar valley.
6)    Semi-Arid Region:
Most of the area of Sindh, Southern Punjab, and Central Baluchistan is situated in the semi-arid area. These areas consist of low rainfall whereas summer is extremely hot, winter is mild.
7)    Arid Region:
Arid Region includes the Tharparker, Cholistan, Thal, and Kharan deserts. This region is extremely hot in summers while winters are mild due to a very small amount of rain. There is no agriculture in arid regions due to draught and the main occupation of the people of this region is cattle rearing.
8)    Coastal Areas:
This region comprises the Indus Delta and the entire coastal area around Karachi and Makran. This zone has a moderate temperature but contains a high level of humidity due to the influence of the sea. The temperature remains low in summer when cool breeze blow from sea to land. The important ports of Pakistan i.e. Karachi, Port Qasim, and Gawadar are located in the region.
Pakistan is located in an area where all the variations of weather are observed due to the lowest altitude on one side, and the world’s highest mountain peaks on the other. All the climatic regions of Pakistan have a different climate in summer and winters. Therefore, the people of Pakistan enjoy the beautiful scenario of every season. These variations also attract tourists, which becomes the cause of advancement in tourism and have a great effect on the economy of Pakistan.

Q.3 iii) What do you know about the natural vegetation of Pakistan?

Natural vegetation is a vital part of our environment. Forests are those natural vegetations that have covered a large part of the land. Forest is the large area of land thickly covered with trees and bushes. The area under forests in Pakistan is very small. According to experts, the area under forests should be at least 25 to 30% of the total area of the country. However, the forest area is only 4.5% in Pakistan. The forests found in Pakistan are:
1.    High Land Forests:
These forests are found in northern areas, Chitral, Dir, Kohistan, and Galliyat etc. These are evergreen forests and the tress of Deodar and Pine are found here. These trees are used for furniture and building purpose.
2.    Coniferous Forests:
These forests are found in the northern areas of Pakistan i.e. Abbottabad, Mansehra, and Murree. Besides, these forests are also seen in the highlands of Quetta and Qalat division in Baluchistan. These forests are evergreen and grow at low temperature. The coniferous, Deodar and Pine trees are important. Moreover, it plays an important role in keeping the environment clean, prevents soil erosion and attracts the tourists because of their beauty. These are used as timber and for making furniture.
3.    The Riverine or Bela Forests:
Such forests are found along the banks of Indus River and its tributaries. The main varieties include Shisham and Babul trees. It provides very fine and hardwood for furniture. These trees provide products and services such as timber, firewood, pit props for mines, forage and browse for livestock.
4.    Coastal Forests:
These forests are found on the Delta of river Indus and river Hub. Trees in these forests are of small size. These trees can also survive in salty water. The height of these trees is about 3 meters and sometimes it rises up to 6 meters. People living in coastal areas use its wood as timber.
5.    Artificial Forests:
These are planted forests. Most of the species such as Shisham, Acacia and eucalyptus are grown for different purposes. These forests are found in Changa Manga near Lahore, Thal Desert, District Sahiwal, Ghulam Muhammad, and Guddu Barrages.
6.    Dry Shrub Forests:
These forests are also called arid or desert forests. The arid thorny forests are important. Acacia, Berry, Karid, Oak etc. are important plants in the region. These plants are found in the Indus plain and arid regions of Baluchistan.
Forests play an important role in the progress of a country. Apart from providing different materials for man’s uses, the forests regulate the water supply. These are very important for life because they regulate the balance between the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The ministry of environment has organized and implemented a number of forestries. The government should encourage industry and private sector to raise commercial plantations on suitable unused state lands.

Q.3 iv) What is a natural region? Give details of the natural regions of Pakistan.

Natural regions are intended to describe areas of the Earth’s surface, which possess similar qualities or attributes. The “Natural region” is often used interchangeably with the word “Ecozone.” “The area where physical features e.g. climate, natural vegetation animals and activities of human beings are the same is called a Natural region.”
Natural Regions of Pakistan:
Pakistan is divided into the following Natural Regions.

  • Plain region.
  • Arid region.
  • Coastal region.
  • Dry and semi-dry mountainous region.
  • Humid and sub Humid mountainous region.

1.    Plain Region:
The plain areas are thickly populated due to the availability of water, transport, means of communication and other facilities. Moreover, the slope of plain areas is low, therefore, they are very important for agriculture. The Indus plain is the most productive area of Pakistan because the various features of the Indus plain and rivers basins play important role in the expansion of population. The area between the two rivers (Doab) is best for cultivation due to the canal irrigation system. The important crops of Indus plain are cotton, wheat, rice, and sugar cane. Likewise, the means of transport and communication in the area are easily available. Therefore, many big industries like textiles and sugar industry etc. are in this region. This is a densely populated region of Pakistan.
2.    The Arid Region:
The desert area is also a part of plain but it is economically and commercially less productive as compared to the other parts of Indus plains. There is an intense shortage of rain in the deserts and most of the people are nomads and rear sheep and goats due to the lack of facilities of life. However, some of the desert areas are fertile and cultivable but due to the shortage of water, the cultivation is not possible on large scale. Therefore, through the canal’s system, the desert of Thal, Cholistan and a great part of Thar have been brought under cultivation.
3.   The Coastal Area:
The southern area, which includes Delta of Indus River, Karachi Coast, and Makran Coast is called the Coastal region. In this region, the sea breeze keeps the temperature moderate. Therefore, this area is neither too cold nor too hot. Marshy areas e.g. Ran Kuch are also found because of the gentle slope in the coastal region. The coastal areas of Southern Sindh including Karachi are thickly populated as compared to the coast of Makran because Karachi is a great center of trade and industry in Pakistan. The occupation of the people of coastal areas is fishing beside trade.
4.    Dry and Semi-Dry Mountainous Region:
The north and southwest mountainous areas of Pakistan receive very low rainfall. Therefore, it is the driest region of Pakistan. The winters are severe while summers are mild. Therefore, this is the region of low population and people migrate towards the plains region. The main occupation of the people is cattle rearing and carpet weaving. The main agriculture products of this region are apple, grapes, peaches, and dry fruits.
5.    Humid and Sub Humid Mountainous Region:
This region includes the mountainous regions of Shiwalik, Pir Punjal, Hindu Kush, and some parts of Koh-e-Sufaid, Murree, Swat, Abbottabad, and Parachinar. There are evergreen forests on the slopes of these mountains due to the heavy rains fall on mountains. These forests are the shelters for wildlife and birds and keep the environment clean. However, the transportation is difficult due to sliding on roads and heavy snowfall in winter. Therefore, the inhabitants face economic problems.
Pakistan has a significant geographical position as it is situated in the center of Asia. The natural regions of Pakistan have much diversity in it as on one side, it enjoys unique landscapes, which includes the world’s most magnificent mountain ranges of Himalaya, Karakoram, and the Hindu Kush in the north-west. Likewise, on the other side, arid plains and deserts dominate the central and southern parts of the country, which include the great Thar and Thal Deserts whereas the Indus River and its numerous tributaries drain the entire country. These natural regions have different climatic conditions, which influences the lifeline of the people of Pakistan. Therefore, these are considered the most pleasant regions of the world.

Q.3 v) Discuss the environmental problems of Pakistan.

The natural environment of Pakistan is a blessing of God but some of the human activities endangered the natural environment. The action or process, which endangers the environment, is called environmental hazards. The natural calamities such as the earthquake, Tsunami, flood, wind and rain, storm, drought, and soil erosion directly damage the environment.  Many changes occur in the environment due to environmental hazards, which also change the climate accordingly and become the cause of danger for human life and civilization.
Environmental Problems of Pakistan:
The major environmental problems are:
1.    The problem of Water Logging and Salinity:
The excess of underground water gives rise to waterlogging whereas salinity is caused by lack of underground water. This is the most serious soil disease because it makes the growth of plants impossible or extremely difficult. At present, about 20 million acres of land in Pakistan is suffering from salinity and waterlogging. It is not only affecting the fertility of the soil but environmental pollution is also increasing. It destroyed a vast area of land in Pakistan. In order to solve the problem of water logging and salinity, it is necessary that the canals should be cemented and tube wells should be installed. The government should take steps to control and manage the standing water over the earth surface and high level of underground water by the proper sewerage system.
2.     Deforestation:
Forests play an important role in the economy of a country. However, Pakistan only contains 4.8%of the total area of forests due to deforestation, which is resulting in many problems such as the decrease in water storage capacity, soil erosion, climate changes, environmental pollution etc. Deforestation is the cutting down of trees and forests to make way for more homes and industries.
Steps to control Deforestation:
The following steps should be taken to stop the deforestation.

  1. The areas from where the forests have been removed should be planted with those trees which have speedy growth.
  2. Rules regarding forests should be imposed strictly.
  3. Trees should be planted in urban areas on the roadsides and on the unoccupied places.
  4. Advertisement campaign should be launched through electronic and print media to create awareness among people how important is it to increase the area of forests.

3.   Desertification:
Desertification is defined as the land degradation in which fertile land becomes desert as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture, e.g. cutting of trees, rapidly increasing soil erosion, poor methods of cultivation etc. The important reasons for this decrease are:

  1. Due to excessive grazing in the fields, the vegetation is uprooted and it changes land into desert.
  2. The use of poor methods of cultivation, cutting of trees, and rapidly increasing soil erosion are also causes of desertification.

Measures to prevent Desertification:
In order to prevent and reverse desertification, the government should take the following steps:

  1. Major policy interventions and changes in management approaches are needed to reverse desertification.
  2. The government should take steps to increase the forest cover area, which can be a major instrument for soil conservation against wind and water erosion.
  3. Steps should be taken to review and set in place proper drainage systems.
  4. Prevention and conservation strategies should be developed for protecting drylands.

4.    Environmental Pollution and its Types:
Environmental pollution is defined as the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes changes in many ways. This type of pollution includes air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, and noise pollution. It dangerously affects human life e.g. air pollution is increasing the temperature of the earth, water pollution decreases the underground water, and soil pollution is decreasing the cultivated area. The most familiar and scientifically recognized environment pollutants are:
i.    Air Pollution:
Air Pollution is the most dangerous form of pollution. It is defined as any contamination of the atmosphere that affects human and the ecosystem. It can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. It comes from both natural and human-made sources. Usually, air pollution occurs due to the automobiles and factories, Engines of vehicles like truck, Rickshaw, and car etc. are running with fuel which mixed in the air.
ii.    Water Pollution:
Water pollution is to poison the water bodies whether from chemical, particulate, or bacterial matter that badly affects the water’s quality and purity. The domestic and industrial refuse in urban areas is the major source of water pollution. In some areas, water from ponds is used which become dirty after some time, which is a great cause of disease in rural areas.
iii.    Land/ Soil Pollution:
Land pollution is the result of a growing population. The densely populated areas are more polluted. People in rural areas ease themselves in the open fields and in the cities rubbish and garbage is thrown outside which causes pollution of land. They contaminate and make poisonous the food crops and vegetable grown on such lands.
Environmental pollution is a problem both in developed and developing countries. Factors such as population growth and urbanization stretch the use of natural resources to the maximum. It is causing a lot of distress not only to humans but also animals, and all the living organisms to endangerment and even extinction. Although technological progress facilitated by super efficiency but it had probably become one of the main causes of a serious disaster of natural resources.  Therefore, efforts should be made on National and Mass level to control the environmental problems of Pakistan.

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