Pakistan Studies 9th Notes Chapter 1 English Short question | Long question The last chapter is more important where constitutions of Pakistan are depicted.
Chapter 1 Pakistan Studies 9th Notes (Ideological Basis of Pakistan) English Short question | Long question
Q.2 i) Discuss the meaning of Ideology of Pakistan?
Every nation has a predetermined objective of its collective national life, which is achieved by their collective wisdom and ideas, which is called the ideology of a nation. The origin of the word “ideology” is composed of two Greek words “ideo” and “logos.” It means “the Science of ideas.” Thus, Ideology is defined as a set of principles and standards, which is based on the political, cultural, social, and economic system of a nation. The Ideology of Pakistan has a unique importance in the history of Muslims. It took shape through an evolutionary process because the national objective of the Muslims of South Asia was the creation of a Muslim state where they could live freely according to the Islamic faith and principles. The collective thinking behind this objective was that the Muslims were a separate nation from Hindus. They had their own cultural, religious, political, and social values. This national objective and the collective thinking is called the “Ideology of Pakistan.”
Q.2 ii) What is meant by Two Nation Theory?
Muslims are the followers of the religion Islam that is based on Last Prophet Muhammad S.A.W and Holy Quran. Therefore, they believe that all non-believers of the world are a single Millat while Muslims had a separate National identity. However, Muslims faced may social, political, and economic problems by non-Muslims after the decline of Muslim’s reign in the subcontinent. Thus, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first political leader who exposed the idea of Two-Nation Theory by defining that Muslims and Hindus are two separate nations and they could not live together in one place. In this way, “Two-Nation Theory” is defined as “the cultural, political, social, religious, and economic dissimilarities between the two major communities, i.e. Hindus and Muslims of the sub-continent.”
Q.2 iii) What does Islam teach us about treatment with the Minorities?
Islam seeks to establish such a society where all citizens of the state enjoy equal rights, and religion does not become the basis for any discrimination. The Islamic law has ensured several rights and privileges for non-Muslim minorities. Only Under the Islamic law, non-Muslim minorities received rights and privileges that other minorities did not have under any other law in any other country. According to the teachings of the Holy Quran, no discrimination can be made among human beings in society on the basis of caste, creed, colour, race and material wealth. Therefore, in an Islamic state, non-Muslim minorities have every right to protect their language, culture, and places of worship. They are also guaranteed equal rights in the constitution of Pakistan because Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah while addressing the Constitution Assembly of Pakistan on 11th of August 1947 said:
“You are free, You are free to go to your temples, mosques and other places of worship in the State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion, sect or creed; it has nothing to do with the business of the state. We are making the beginning of our system with these fundamental principles that we are all equal citizens of the same state.”
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Q.2 iv) Why did the Hindus oppose the Urdu Language?
The Urdu-Hindi controversy began in the year 1867 When Hindus demonstrated against Urdu and demanded its replacement with Hindi as an official language. The Hindus of Banaras launched a movement against the use of Urdu Language as official language and demanded that Hindi written in Devangri script should be introduced in the offices and courts as official language. The Hindus opposed Urdu merely because this language developed during Muslim rule and its Persio-Arabic script was unacceptable to them. Sir Syed was extremely disappointed to see the Hindus behaving in a prejudicial manner. Therefore, Sir Syed expressed his views about the Hindus and Muslims as two separate nations for the first time in 1868.
Q.2 v) Why was the need felt for the formation of Muslim League?
The Indian National Congress was founded by a British officer A.O.Hume in 1885 with the purpose to represent the Hindus and the Muslims equally. However, this was totally against the rights and interests of the Muslims. Therefore, when Sir Syed Ahmad Khan presented the Two Nation Theory, the Muslims started a separate political struggle with the purpose of defending their rights and interests against the British and the Hindus. Meanwhile, the Congress demanded the implementation of Western democracy in India but the Muslim demanded separate electorates in subcontinent India. Therefore, a Muslim delegation met with the British Viceroy Lord Minto at Simla in 1906 and put their demand before them so that the Muslims could elect their representatives in the Legislative Council. Consequently, the Indian National Congress and other Hindu organizations strongly opposed the Muslim’s demand. Moreover, when Bengal was partitioned into two parts in 1905 on administrative grounds, the Hindus opposed this decision merely because in one of these two provinces, i.e., in East Bengal and Assam, Muslim majority had been established. In view of this situation, the Muslims realized the need to create a separate political party for them and All India Muslim League was founded in 1906.
Q.2 vi) How did the Nehru Report affect the Political thinking of the Muslims?
In 1928, a joint meeting of all the political parties in India was held to formulate a unanimous constitution for India. For this purpose, a committee was constituted in which the Hindu and Congress leaders participated in majority. The head of this committee was a Congress leader, Moti Lai Nehru. Therefore, the report presented by him is called the Nehru Report. The Nehru Report badly affected the political thinking of Muslims, as the recommendations of this committee were totally opposed to the aspirations and interests of the Muslims. Moreover, The Nehru Report eliminated the possibility of Hindu Muslim unity and realized the Muslims that the protection of their interests in united India under Hindu majority was not possible.
Pak studies notes in English Medium for class 9 chapter 1 Long Question
Q.3 i) What are the sources of Ideology of Pakistan? Discuss the need and importance of Ideology?
Every nation has a predetermined objective of its collective national life, which is achieved by their collective wisdom and ideas, which is called the ideology of a nation. Ideology brings those concepts, which a nation strives to accomplish in order to bring stability to its nationhood. Nationhood is the state of having a status of a separate and independent nation. Therefore, the basis of Muslim nationhood depends on Islamic ideology, which means the way of life would be based on the tenets of Islam.
Sources of Ideology:
The elements that form an ideology are called its sources. Many elements play their role in the formation of ideologies, which include religious and moral values, culture, civilization, and social customs. The religious values, civilization, history, and social customs of every nation are different, therefore; their ideologies are unique and different from each other. Following elements lead to the formation of an ideology among people:
1) Common Religion:
Religion is not only a set of adoration (worships) but also it has profound impacts on the whole of the social life. Every religion maintains social relationships in light of specific ideas. For example, the Europeans, the Japanese, the Hindus, and the Muslims want to lead their lives according to their religions respectively.
2) Common Race:
Common ideas are originated from the common race. A common race gives birth to common ideas. It is quite natural that people belonging to the same race develop the sentiments of sympathy and unity for each other. Racism is a strong bond, which, because of common ideas, binds human beings in blood like the relationship.
3) Common Language and Residency:
Language is the means of conveying the feelings, sentiments, and thoughts to others. These help to form new ideas. The similarity in the ways of living and harmony in ideas depend mostly on the common territory.
4) Common Political Purposes:
Most of the nations of the present age try to achieve political freedom for the survival of their national life so that they may become a strong nation because of common political purposes and political ideas.
5) Common Customs:
Common customs have played a vital role in the formation and development of ideas in every age. Common customs create ideological harmony with respect to culture and thoughts.
Need and Significance of Ideology:
Ideology creates unity among the members of a nation and guides the nation in the right direction to attain the national objectives. Ideology is the name of the expression of social and economic aspirations. The national objectives in the attainment of which ideology helps a nation are:
1) Creation of Unity among Society:
Ideology plays the most important role in keeping the members of a society or nation united because when the ideas of individuals in a society are homogenized, an exemplary union is established among them and the differences are minimized.
2) National Constitution:
Ideology guides the nations in formulating their constitution and other state laws. Ideological nations face no problem in legislation because they have in front of them the basic guiding principles already present in the form of ideology.
3) Preservation of Social Values:
Ideology preserves the culture, civilization, social and religious values of a nation. Ideological nations remain immune from negative internal and external influences and wrong inclinations. It creates the ability among nations to face difficult conditions and to resolve their problems. Ideological nations never lose courage even in the most difficult situation and seek the solution of their problems in the light of their ideology.
4) National Identity:
Ideology plays an important role in shaping the national identity and character and makes a nation distinguished from others.
5) Motivating Force:
Ideology is a motivating force for a nation, which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nationhood.
6) Provision of Guidelines:
Ideology guides a nation towards knowledge and action in the light of material development, which leads them to the path of spirituality and humanitarianism.
Ideology is a comprehensive pattern of cognitive and moral beliefs in relation to man and society, which flourish in human societies. These proposals explicitly manifest human conditions, approaches, and understanding of social and political order and provide the basis for the accomplishment of a desired social system. Therefore, Muslims of subcontinent decided to flourish their own ideology, which was based on Islamic principles and which became the reason of a separate Muslim state.
Q.3 ii) Write a note on the foundations and components of the Ideology of Pakistan?
Foundations and Components of the Ideology of Pakistan:
Ideology is a set of ideas on which a political, cultural, social or economic system is based. Every religion of the world, every association of human beings and every state need some fundamental principles which it should follow. Muslims believe that the people of the world are divided into two major communities on the basis of faith. The followers of Islamic creed are the separate and distinct nation from the rest of mankind. Therefore, they wanted to preserve, maintain and express their national identity by exercising their right of self-determination and by following the principles of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. Thus, “Pakistan Ideology” refers to that “set of beliefs, which formed the basis of the Muslim freedom struggle in South-East Asia.” The foundations and components of the Ideology of Pakistan are:
1) Religion Islam and Belief in Tauheed:
The Muslims of the sub-continent demanded Pakistan because they wanted to live in accordance with Islamic beliefs, which includes belief in the oneness of Allah (Tauheed), the finality of Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad S.A.W, life hereafter, angels and the Books revealed by Allah. Therefore, the base of the ideology of Pakistan is not based on territory or race but on Kalma-e-Tauheed.
2) Islamic Code of Life:
Islam is not merely the set of rituals and worships, but it is a complete code of conduct, which fulfills all the economic, social, moral, and political purpose of the society and the human life. Therefore, the objective behind the Ideology of Pakistan is also based on Islamic values such as belief of worship, justice, promotion of democracy, fraternity etc.
3) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty:
The basic objective of Muslims life is to accept the sovereignty of Allah. It describes that nothing is beyond His Power and man is the deputy of Almighty Allah and the real power lies only with Almighty Allah. Therefore, Muslims of the sub-continent demanded Pakistan because they wanted to live in accordance with Islamic beliefs, which includes belief in the oneness of Allah (Tauheed), the finality of Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad S.A.W, life hereafter, angels and the Books revealed by Allah.
4) Justice and Equality:
Justice and equality is an important part of Muslim society because Islam gives equal status to all human beings without any discrimination of caste, colour, creed, language, and culture. The only thing that distinguishes one person from another is abstinence from committing sins and Taqwah. The Holy Quran says that “O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.”
Minorities were deprived of their all their rights and kept backward in social and economic fields. Therefore, Hazrat Muhammad S.A.W explained the value of justice and equality in His last Sermon (Khutba-e- Hajja Tul- Wida) that:
“O people, all of you have one God and all mankind is the offspring of Adam. An Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor does a black have any superiority over while.”
Therefore, in an Islamic state, non-Muslim minorities have every right to protect their language, culture, and places of worship.
5. Islamic Democracy:
Islam establishes a state based on Islamic principles and the highest standards of morality and human well-being. Therefore, Consultation is the basis of an Islamic state, which promotes the democracy in which every citizen has equal status before the law and no discrimination is allowed based on caste, colour, creed, or language. Moreover, the system of the government is run for the welfare of all the people. Islamic conduct of state is based upon the principle of Shura. Allah has enjoined upon the head of the Muslim state to consult with the common body of citizens. “And consult with them upon the conduct of affairs”. (3:159)
Quaid-e-Azam described the purpose of achievement of Pakistan in the following words:
“Let us lay the foundation of our democracy on the basis of the true Islamic principles. Our Almighty has taught us that our decisions in the affairs of the state shall be guided by discussions and consultations.”
The main objective behind the Ideology of Pakistan was to establish a system of government in a state in which all laws should be formulated according to the teachings of Islam. Thus, the religious belief of the Muslims living in the subcontinent was the first and the foremost motivating force behind the ideology of Pakistan.
Q.3 iii) Elucidate the evolution of the Ideology of Pakistan.
Evolution of Two-Nation Theory:
The concept of “Muslims” as a Nation developed before the establishment of Pakistan with the advent of Islam that introduced new principles to every sphere of life. The Arab traders introduced the new religion Islam, in the Indian coastal areas when Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered some part of India and after that, Mahmud of Ghazna opened the gate to preach Islam. The reign of Muslim rulers in the subcontinent remained for many centuries. However, it collapsed with dramatic suddenness within a few decades after the death of Aurangzeb Alamgir. The decline of Muslims had started and their condition was too miserable at that time. The British and Hindus both degraded the Muslims socially, politically, religiously and economically. Therefore, many scholars and leaders started their efforts, movements, and reforms to help the Muslims.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Two-Nation Theory:
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was the first person who used the term “Nation” for the Muslims of Sub-continent and presented the idea that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations and they could not live together for a longer period, which was known as Two-Nation Theory.
The Ideology of Pakistan:
The term “Pakistan Ideology” refers to that set of beliefs, which formed the basis of the Muslim freedom struggle in South-East Asia. It was based on the Islamic faith and two-nation theory. Thus, it was simultaneously a religious, political, and economic ideology. Religiously, the ideology of Pakistan stated that Pakistan should be an independent democratic state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the Islamic principles and faith. Politically, the aim of the Pakistan ideology was to save the Muslims of South Asia from the obvious domination of Hindu majority forever and the economic objective was the elimination of economic exploitation and the provision of equal opportunities to all the people.
Evolution of Ideology of Pakistan:
The evolution of Ideology of Pakistan took shape through a gradual process. It stemmed from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it. The series of events, which led to the evolution of the Ideology of Pakistan, were:
Formation of Congress and Muslim League Political Party:
The Indian National Congress was founded by a British officer A.O.Hume in 1885 with the purpose to represent the Hindus and the Muslims equally. However, this was totally against the rights and interests of the Muslims and when the Congress demanded the implementation of Western democracy in India, a Muslim delegation met with the British Viceroy Lord Minto at Shimla in 1906 and demanded from him separate electorates for the Muslims so that the Muslims could elect their representatives under the principle of separate electorate and ensure their representation of Legislative Council. Further, in view of this situation, the Muslims also realized the need to create a separate political party for them. Thus, “All India Muslim League” was founded in 1906.
Muslim League was a political party of Muslims; therefore, it started the struggle for the protection of the interests of the Indian Muslims from 1906 to 1928 under Two-Nation Theory. In 1928, a joint meeting of all the political parties in India was held in which an attempt was made by Moti Lal Nehru to formulate a unanimous constitution for India, which was called the Nehru Report. The Nehru Report eliminated the possibility of Hindu Muslim unity and thus, the Muslims realized that the protection of their interests in united India under Hindu majority was not possible.
Quaid-e-Azam’s Fourteen Points:
All the Muslim Political organizations were against the Nehru Report because it denied even the most justified demands of Muslims that had been made in the Delhi Proposals and accepted by the Congress. In March 1929, Quaid-e-Azam called a meeting of All India Muslim League at Delhi and presented his own formula for the constitutional reform in reply to the Nehru Report, which was known as “Fourteen Point” in the history of the subcontinent.
Allama Iqbal and the Ideology of Pakistan:
Muslim League held its Annual session in December 1930 at Allahabad. This was the first time when Muslim Political leaders presented the idea of a separate state, which later became the ideology of Pakistan. Thus, in this session, Allama Iqbal explained the political concepts of Islam and threw light upon the ideology of separate nationhood for the Muslims of South Asia. He said:
“India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races, speaking different languages and professing different religions. The principles of European democracy cannot be implemented in India. The Muslims demand for a Muslim India within India is therefore perfectly justified.”
In the same Allahabad address, Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal presented the idea of a separate state for the Muslims. He said:
“The Muslims would not allow that their religious, political, and social rights are usurped. Therefore, I would like to see the Punjab, North West Frontier Province (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Sindh and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state……. It appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims of North-western India.”
Quaid-e-Azam and Ideology of Pakistan:
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a great protagonist of Hindu-Muslim unity but he was extremely disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. Therefore, he realized that only a separate state for Muslims is the solution for all the problems of India. He also explained the Two Nation Theory and Ideology of Pakistan on several occasions. He said:
“Musalmans are a nation according to any definition of a nation and they must have their homeland, their territory, and their state.”
On 23 March 1940, in his presidential address at the historical session of Muslim League at Lahore Quaid-e-Azam said:
“Hinduism and Islam are not merely two religions but two separate social orders and it is the dream that the Hindus and Muslims can evolve a common nationality. They belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.”
7) Chaudhary Rehmat Ali and Ideology of Pakistan:
Chaudhary Rehmat Ali was one of the eminent contributors in the movement for the establishment of Pakistan. He was of the opinion that the Muslims possess the history and civilization of their own and on the basis of these two, their nationality is not Hindustani but Pakistani. In January 1933, during his stay at England, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali along with some of his friends published a pamphlet named “Now or Never.” In this pamphlet, the name of the separate state for the Muslims was proposed as “Pakistan.”
Islamic ideology is the philosophy underlying the Two Nation theory, which gradually led to the ideology of Pakistan. The historical experiences provided the base to Muslim scholars and leaders for this ideology by presenting the concept of a separate Muslim state. Thus, finally, Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation and Quaid-e-Azam translated it into a political reality. Thus, Pakistan is a state founded on an ideological basis, not on the territorial grounds.
Q.3 iv) How did Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Allama Muhammad Iqbal explain the ideology of Pakistan in their speeches and statements?
The Ideology of Pakistan in the light of Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam:
The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah were the most prominent personalities in the creation of Pakistan. These two great leaders explained the Ideology of Pakistan in the most appropriate words in their speeches and statements on different occasions. Allama Iqbal illuminated the concept of a separate Muslim state before the Muslims of South Asia while Quaid-e-Azam led the active Muslim political struggle to give a practical shape to this idea and finally Pakistan came into being on 14 August 1947.
The Ideology of Pakistan in the Statements of Allama Iqbal:
Allama Iqbal was a great poet, thinker, philosopher, scholar, and politician. He played an important role in the proceeding of All India Muslim Leagues’ London Branch. He was a believer of Hindu-Muslim unity but later, he realized that Congress was not the party of Muslims. Iqbal gave a clear concept of the Two-Nation theory as Muslims and Hindus are a separate nation. He declared that there would be no peace in India unless and until Muslims were recognized as a separate nation. Allama Iqbal explaining the two-nation theory as:
“Despite living together for 1000 years, Hindus and Muslims have their own individual ideologies so the only solution of the political conflict in India is to have a separate independent parliament for each nation.”
Separate Recognition of Muslims:
In 1930, while delivering his Presidential address at the Annual Session of Muslim League at Allahabad he said:
“India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races, speaking different languages and professing different religions. The principles of European democracy cannot be implemented in India. The Muslim demand for a Muslim India within India is therefore perfectly justified.”
The concept of Separate Muslim State:
Dr. Muhammad Allama Iqbal was a great supporter and preacher of a separate Muslim state. He gave the idea of a separate state for the Muslims in 1930 in addressing the annual meeting of All India Muslim league in Allah Abad in these words:
“I would like to see the Punjab, North West Frontier Province, Sindh, and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state. … It appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims of north-western India.”
The Ideology of Pakistan in the Statements of Quaid-e-Azam:
Muhammad Ali Jinnah is the icon of Pakistan’s history. He gave the practical shape to the ideology given by the Allama Iqbal. He had a strong belief in Hindu Muslim unity and was of the opinion that Hindus and Muslims should join their hands to get rid of British rule. Jinnah joined the Muslim League in 1903 and tried to unite both nations, Hindu and Muslim but he was extremely disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims.
Quaid-e-Azam and Two-Nation theory:
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah also explained the Two Nation Theory and the Ideology of Pakistan on several occasions in a comprehensive manner. He was a strong supporter of Two Nation Theory and believed in the separate Muslim nationhood. While explaining the Two Nation Theory, he once said:
“Musalmans are a nation according to any definition of nation and they must have their homeland.”
Address on 23 March 1940:
On 23 March 1940, in his Presidential address at the historic session of Muslim League at Lahore he said:
“Hinduism and Islam are not merely two religions but two separate social orders and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can evolve a common nationality. They (Hindus and Muslims) belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.”
Muslim National Identity:
Quaid-e-Azam, in one of his letters to Gandhi Ji, wrote these words about the separate Muslim national identity:
“We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of value and proportion, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and ambitions, in short we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all canons of international law, we are a nation.”The speeches and statements of these two great leaders of Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent help in understanding the Ideology of Pakistan. Both have proved that the Hindus and the Muslims are two separate nations, by referring in their statements to the cultural and religious differences between the two, and they could not live together in a single state due to the clear mutual differences between them. Therefore, Muslims had the right to have their own separate homeland where they could live in accordance with their religious, cultural, and social values.