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Q.1) Outline the main features of the Two-Nation Theory?
The subcontinent India was a center of two great nations, i.e. Muslims and Hindus. Muslim ruled India for many centuries. However, their empire began to decline due to frailty in moral and social character. Thus, the British took advantage and started colonization in India, which finally led to the establishment of the British crown in India. Therefore, the Muslim’s condition was made worsened by Hindus and British. In this regard, Two Nation Theory was outlined, which was defined as “the religious, political, social, cultural, and economic dissimilarities between the two major communities, Hindus and Muslims of the sub-continent.”
The objective behind this theory was that the Muslims were not a community but a nation with a distinctive history, heritage, culture, civilization, and future aspirations and they had a separate national identity, which they wanted to preserve, maintain, and express by exercising their right of self-determination. These differences of outlook were also responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Two-Nation Theory:
Sir Syed is regarded as one of the greatest exponents of Two-Nation Theory in the subcontinent. At first, Sir Syed tried to remove differences between the Hindus and Muslims. Hindu students were admitted and Hindu teachers were recruited in Muslim institutions. However, he was disappointed by the campaign of Hindus for the promotion of Hindi language in contrast to Urdu. Hindus wanted Hindi as an official language.
The controversy between Hindi and Urdu changed the mind of Sir Syed and he developed his political strategy based on Muslim identity. It was the beginning of Two Nation Theory. Sir Syed was the first Muslim leader who used the term ‘nation’ for the Muslims of the sub-continent because of their separate religious entity, their distinct civilization, philosophy, culture, moral values, and the concept of economy. After Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, a number of Muslim leaders of the sub-continent, i.e. Abdul Halim Sharar, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Chaudhry Rehmat Ali, Allama Iqbal, and Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah also declared that the Muslims were a separate nation. However, the statements of Quaid-e-Azam and Allama Iqbal have more importance in proceeding the Two-Nation Theory such as:
Quaid-e-Azam and Two-Nation theory:
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the most prominent personality of the Indian Muslims’ independent movement. Jinnah was a great protagonist of Hindu-Muslim unity but he was extremely disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. Therefore, he joined the Muslim League in 1903 and realized that only a separate state for Muslims is the solution for all the problems of India. He started the struggle for the separate Islamic state for the Muslims. Quaid-e-Azam said:
“India is neither a country nor its inhabitants a nation. This is a subcontinent where many nations live. Among these, Hindus and Muslims are the two important nations.”
Allama Iqbal and Two-Nation Theory:
Iqbal was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilization across the world, but specifically in India. He delivered a series of famous lectures on The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. Allama Iqbal made it clear that the Muslims have separate recognition from the Hindus on the basis of religion and culture. In this regard, he said:
“India is not a country, it is a subcontinent of human beings belonging to different languages and practicing different religions. The Muslim nation has its own religious and cultural identity.”
Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal presented the idea of a separate state for the Muslims. He said:
“The Muslims would not allow their religious, political, and social rights to be usurped. Therefore, I would like to see the Punjab, North West Frontier Province (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Sindh and Balochistan put together into a single state.”
The Two-Nation Theory served as the basis of demand for Pakistan by the Muslims in British India. Muslims cannot be merged into any other nation because they have their own interests and ideas. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ideas and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority. Therefore, they articulated their own theory for their identity and rights, which led them to form their own independent state, and Pakistan finally came into being on 14 August 1947 based on a two-nation theory.
Q.2) What were the main objectives of the Faraizi Movement?
Haji Shariat Ullah was among the most prominent reformers who started revivalist movements for rekindling Islamic thinking in the sub-continent. The term ‘Faraizi’ has derived from ‘Farz’, standing for compulsory and mandatory religious duties (Faraiz) ordained by Allah and his last Prophet S.A.W, which was identified as “Faraizi Movement.” The basic objectives of the Faraizi Movement were:
- To eliminate the un-Islamic customs and traditions, which prevailed among the Bengali Muslims
- To guide the Muslims to perform their religious duties and practices strictly and seriously.
Q.3) Mention the role of Shah Waliullah in the Revivalist Movement.
Revivalist Movement in the Sub-continent:
Muslims ruled the sub-continent for more than one thousand years. However, when they deviated from the golden principles of Islam their power and influence declined gradually. Therefore, for the betterment of the Muslims, a number of religious scholars and reformers started movements for the revival of Islamic teachings and values. Their struggle to create Islamic spirit in the Muslims of the sub-continent is known as Revivalist Movement. The role of Shah Wali Ullah became very prominent in the revivalist movement, which created religious awareness among the Muslims of the sub-continent.
Role of Shah Wali Ullah:
Shah Wali Ullah (RA) was a great Muslim scholar. His name was Qutubuddin but due to his spiritual virtues, he was called Wali Ullah. He memorized the Holy Quran and gained knowledge of Tafseer, Hadith, Mysticism, and logic. He started teaching in the same Madrasah after the death of his father. In the 18th century, Muslims faced a persistent decline due to the sectarian conflict, low moral tone of the society, poor understanding of the Holy Quran and general ignorance of Islam, which gave rise to fear that political collapse, would be accompanied by religious disintegration. His role in the revivalist movement was:
1) Political Services:
After the death of Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in March 1707, a wave of religious and moral degradation swept the Muslims of the sub-continent. The Military strength of the Muslims had collapsed and they were at the mercy of the tribal might of Jats and Marathas. Therefore, he wrote letters to the Mughal Emperor, the Nizam of Hyderabad Deccan, Rohila Sardar Hafiz-ul-Mulk, and Najibuddula. He warned them about the declining state of the Muslim society in the sub-continent. He also invited the ruler of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali to attack India and save the Muslims of India from the atrocities of Marathas. Thereupon, Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1761 defeated Marathas in the third battle of Panipat, which they could never recover.
2) Educational Services:
Shah Wali Ullah’s meritorious work was the Persian translation of the Holy Quran. He translated the Holy Quran in Persian in order to make the teachings of the Holy Quran more accessible to the common people. This helped the people in understanding the Holy Quran. Later, his sons and other religious scholars translated it into Urdu. He also wrote books on hadith, Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) and Tafseer (Exegesis). The most popular work among these was Hujjat-ul-La-Hul-Baliga. The message of this work was that Islam is the universal religion. It guarantees progress and prosperity for the whole of humanity. Shah Wali Ullah died on 10 August 1762. His son and successor Shah Abdul Aziz continued his mission at Madrasah Rahimiah in Delhi.
Shah Wali Ullah was one of the greatest Muslim scholars of the subcontinent. He started his preaching during the time when Hindu-Muslim Conflicts were at its peak and he realized that neglecting the principles of Islam became the reason for the decline of Muslim. His deep understanding of the Quran, Hadith, Fiqh, and Tasawuf made him a highly knowledgeable scholar in the subcontinent. Therefore, he started his scholarly efforts for the revival of Islamic teachings and soon his hard work succeeded him to bring back the Muslims to the pure and true meaning of Islam.
Q.4) Describe the struggle of Syed Ahmed Shaheed in eliminating the social evils from the Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Syed Ahmed Shaheed is a well-known scholar in the history of the sub-continent as a preacher of Islam. His struggle was against the evil forces in the subcontinent. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi was born at Raebareli in 1786. After the completion of his early education, he joined the army of Nawab Ameer Khan. Later, he left his service in 1806 from the army and went to Delhi, where he acquired religious knowledge.
Syed Ahmed Shaheed was much concerned about the downfall of the Muslims. He started a strong movement against Polytheism and emphasized upon the Unicity of Allah (Tauheed). This movement was the source of inspiration to the Muslims of India in their struggle for the protection of their separate identity, preservation of Muslim culture, and the establishment of an independent Islamic state.
Objectives of Jihad Movement:
The movement of Syed Ahmed Shaheed was known as Tehrik-e- Mujahideen (The Struggle of Freedom Fighters) and the objectives of this movement were:
- To preach Unicity of Allah (Tauheed)
- To revive the teachings of Islam
- To establish a state in the sub-continent in accordance with the Principles of Islam
- To protect Muslims against such acts and ideas that are contrary to Islamic values.
- To preach Jihad because it was not possible to free from the evil force without armed struggle
Struggle in Punjab and N.W.F.P:
Syed Ahmed wanted to revive Islamic values and to eliminate domination of Sikhs from Punjab and N.W.F.P. Therefore, he and his companions started Jihad against Sikhs in Punjab and N.W.F.P. Shah Ismail Shaheed along with his six thousand followers joined Syed Ahmad in his Jihad against evil forces.
Struggle in Sindh:
He came to Sindh in 1826 and sought the help of Syed Sibghatullah Shah who sent a strong contingent of his staunch followers called ‘Hurs’. He reached Nowshera (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) in December 1826 and made it his headquarters. The first battle against the Sikhs was fought on December 21, 1826, near Akora in which Sikhs were defeated. The second battle was fought at Hazro and the Muslims won it. These victories inspired a number of Pathan tribes to join the Jihad movement. Syed Ahmad was given the status of Amir-ul-Momineen. He and his companions captured Peshawar and enforced the law of Shariat in the conquered territory.
The Jihad Movement was very successful initially but soon conspiracies were started against Syed Ahmed. A few tribal leaders (Sardars) even tried to imprison and kill him. Similarly, Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780- 1839) bribed Sardar Yar Muhammad and his brother Sultan Muhammad Khan to plot against the Khilafat of Syed Ahmad Shaheed. The disloyalty of the Sardars disheartened him. He made Balakot as his new headquarter and started his struggle from Muzaffarabad. Muslims fought this battle with heroism but Syed Ahmad and his right-hand companions were martyred on 6 May 1831. Only 300 Mujahedeen survived out of thousands of Mujahideen, which ended the Khilafat of Syed Ahmad Shaheed.
The names of Syed Ahmad Shaheed and Shah Ismail Shaheed will always be remembered for their heroic struggle for the revival of an Islamic society and polity. Although they tried hard in eliminating the social evils from the Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa but they could not be succeeded due to the plotting of Pathan leaders. In short, the Jihad movement of Syed Ahmed Shaheed failed, but this movement kindled a flame of freedom in the subcontinent.
Q.5) Describe the achievements of the Aligarh Movement.
Background of Aligarh Movement:
The British had taken over the power and leadership of the sub-continent from the Muslims. Therefore, they considered the Muslims as their strong opponent and enemy. After the War of Independence in 1857, Muslims of the sub-continent became victims of atrocities of the British. Muslims were denied their religious, political, economic, social, and educational rights. This left the Muslims in fear and despair. Hindus, however, joined hands with the British very soon and became close to the British rulers. In these circumstances, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan started an awakening movement for them, which was known as the Aligarh Movement.
Achievements of Aligarh Movement:
The Aligarh movement spread awareness among the Muslims in the sub-continent. A number of prominent personalities like Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk, Maulana Shibli Naumani, Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali, and Maulana Chiragh Hassan played an important role in the success of Aligarh movement. The main achievements of the Aligarh movement were:
1) Educational Achievements:
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan realized that only modern education would help in the progress and development of Muslims. Therefore, he established English schools in various cities. In 1863, he established ‘The Scientific Society’ that aimed to spread knowledge through the translation of Standard English books into Urdu. Sir Syed motivated the younger generation of Muslims to learn English so that acquisition of modern scientific knowledge becomes easy. This helped the development of the Urdu language also. In 1877, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan laid the foundation of Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh to impart modern education as well as religious education.
2) Social Achievements:
The War of Independence 1857 brought untold miseries to the Muslims. They were damaged economically and were looked down upon. Sir Syed was also a social reformer. Therefore, for the revival of their honor, Sir Syed wrote his famous books “The Causes of The Indian Revolt” and “The Loyal Muhammadans of India.” Through these books, he cleared the misunderstandings between the Muslims and British. Therefore, the ban on the jobs of Muslims was relaxed. He made an effort to protect Urdu from being faded away and replaced by English. He wrote a series of treatises in Urdu on the religious subject in 1842.
3) Political Achievements:
Sir Syed is regarded as one of the greatest exponents of Two-Nation Theory because after the Hindu-Urdu controversy he was convinced that Hindus were not sincere towards the Muslims. In 1878, Sir Syed was nominated to the Viceroy’s Legislative Council and as a member of the Imperial Legislative Council; he took up the Indian problems very effectively with the Indian Government. In 1886, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan laid the foundation of the Muhammadan Educational Conference. The purpose of this conference was to spread the message of the Aligarh Movement to the Muslims throughout India and to motivate the Muslims for acquiring modern knowledge.
Sir Syed was a man of great courage and he worked throughout his life for the betterment of the Indian Muslims. He gave a new vision and a new direction to the Muslims after the War of Independence. The Aligarh Movement became the source of Muslim strength and led the Muslims to reshape their future. It has helped the Muslims to achieve the economic, social, and political status in the subcontinent.
Q.6) Describe the role of Muslim League in the struggle for Pakistan.
Formation of Muslim League:
The success of Shimla Deputation made the Muslim leaders seriously felt the need for a separate Muslim political organization. The annual meeting of Muhammadan Educational Conference was held at the residence of Nawab Salim Ullah Khan of Dhaka on 30 December 1906. Almost all the Muslim leaders from different parts of the sub-continent attended the meeting, which was convened by Nawab Salim Ullah Khan of Dacca. In this meeting, the Muslim leaders thoroughly discussed the problems of Muslims and the situation created by Hindus after the partition of Bengal 1905. It was decided to set up a political party to protect and safeguard the sub-continent. He, therefore, moved a resolution, which was supported by many participants and Muslim scholars, and thus the Muslims’ political party “All India Muslim League” was founded. The central office of the League was set up at Aligarh and Agha Khan was its first and permanent President.
Aims and Objectives of the Establishment of Muslim League:
The aims and objectives of the establishment of Muslim League were:
- To establish good friendly relations between the British government and the Muslims and to remove misunderstandings from the minds of the British against the Muslims
- To coordinate with other nations and political parties in the subcontinent for the commonwealth.
- To protect the rights of the Muslims by seeking co-operation of the government and other political parties.
Role of Muslim League in the struggle for independence
Since the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906, it became a platform for the Muslims of South Asia to struggle for their rights and attain freedom from the British. The struggle of Muslim League passed through a number of difficulties. Muslim League played an important role in the struggle of independence such as:
1) Protection of rights:
The immediate task before the Muslim League was to take appropriate steps to safeguard the rights of the Muslims of the sub-continent and to apprise the government to their problems and demands. Muslim League adopted a balanced attitude to join hands with the Hindus to oust British from the sub-continent on the one hand and on the other hand, it struggled to improve the relations between the Muslims and the British government.
2) The Political settlement with Congress:
Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah joined Muslim League in October 1913. Due to his efforts, Muslim League and Congress party made a political settlement in December 1916, which is known as “Lucknow Pact.” According to this pact, the Congress accepted the independent separate status of Muslims and recognized the separate electorate for Indian Muslims.
3) Number of Muslims:
The number of Muslims in the Central Legislative Assembly was agreed to be one-third (1/3) due to the efforts of the Muslim League.
In the two large Muslim provinces of Bengal and Punjab, the strength of Muslims in the legislature was established.
5) Proportionate Representation:
In the provinces where Muslims were in a minority, their representation in proportion to their population was doubled.
The Role of the Muslim League in Muslim’s struggle for independence is a glorious episode in the history of India. The prime objective of establishment of the Muslim League was to protect the Muslim interests and rights and to secure a number of demands from the Government for the Muslims. Therefore, with the passage of time, Muslims of India greatly welcomed and supported it and it remained successful in achieving their objectives.
Q.7) What role was played by the provinces in the struggle for Pakistan?
Role of Provinces in the Struggle for Pakistan:
Pakistan came into being due to the tireless struggle of Muslims of the sub- continent. The people of all the provinces popularized the Pakistan Movement. The Muslim leaders spread the message of Pakistan to every nook and corner of the sub-continent. The role of the various provinces in the Pakistan movement was:
The Punjab played an important role in the struggle of Pakistan for the independence of the Muslims of the subcontinent. Punjab has the majority of Muslim population. However, it first went into the hands of Sikhs and then to the British. Both of these forces were against the Muslims and kept them suppressed and backward. In spite of this Punjab never lost its Muslim identity. Punjab produced great scholars, intellectuals, diplomats, and political leaders. The Sufis and religious scholars kept their morale and moral character very high.
Allama Iqbal spread religious awareness among the people through his thoughts and poetry. He presented the plan of a separate homeland in the Pakistan Resolution in Lahore on March 23, 1940. Therefore, Muslim League implemented the idea of Pakistan throughout Punjab. In the elections of 1945-46 Muslim League won about 90% Muslim seats in the Provincial Assembly of Punjab. The prominent leaders of the movement were Nawab Iftikhar Hussain of Mamdot, Mian Mumtaz Ahmed Khan Daultana Mian Iftikhar-ud-din, Mian Amir-ud-din, Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan, and others.
Quaid-e-Azam presided over the Pakistan Conference held in Islamia College, Lahore in 1941. The students of Punjab opposed the Unionist Government in Punjab, which had the support of British and Congress, and ultimately it resigned and paved the way for the emergence of Pakistan. The Muslim women also took an active part in the movement. During the civil disobedience campaign in Punjab, a brave woman of Punjab Sughra Fatima (Sughra Aftab) removed the British Flag (Union Jack) from the Punjab Secretariat and placed there the flag of Muslim League. Thus, Punjab played a great role in the creation of Pakistan.
The British forces conquered Sindh in 1843, which was the gateway of Islam. In order to change its Muslim majority status, it was made an administrative part of Bombay Presidency. However, because of the continuous struggle of the Muslims of Sindh, it was made a separate province in 1935. In fact, this was the first definite step towards the creation of Pakistan.
Muslim League’s first Annual Session was held in Karachi in December 1907. Sindh was the first province where the Muslim League passed a Resolution in October 1938, in which they demanded the establishment of a Muslim government in the Muslim majority provinces. This resolution became the foundation of the Pakistan Resolution in March 1940. Moreover, during the period of the Second World War, Syed Sibaghatullah Shah, Pir Pagara, launched an armed struggle against British rule. This struggle is remembered as “Hur Movement.” Although Pir Pagara was martyred, this movement accelerated the creation of Pakistan. In the elections of 1945-46, Muslim League got a majority in Sindh province and formed the government. The religious leaders in Sindh also played a significant role in the movement. In addition, the people of Sindh remained supporters of the Pakistan Movement throughout the struggle for independence.
Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. The people of this province are brave, strong and believe in old traditions. Even during British rule, they maintained their position as free people. They responded positively to the call of Muslim’s freedom struggle. Qazi Muhammad Isa of Baluchistan joined Muslim League Working Committee in 1939. He established Muslim League in Baluchistan and many tribal leaders joined it. Muslim League soon became a popular party in Baluchistan. Mir Jaffar Khan Amali, Mir Qadir Bakhsh Zehri, Sardar Baz Khan, and Nawab Muhammad Khan Jogezai organized meetings in different parts of Baluchistan and conveyed the message of Quaid-e-Azam to the people. Mir Ahmad Yar Khan, the Khan of Kalat supported the Pakistan movement. On March 23, 1941, Pakistan Day was celebrated in Quetta by organizing a grand rally of people under the leadership of Qazi Muhammad Isa.
4) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa:
The People of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are known for their bravery and religious mindedness. This province had earlier no real constitution due to the policy of the British. In 1940, Sardar Aurangzeb fully supported the Pakistan Resolution but Muslim League could not be properly organized in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa until 1945. In these situations, Congress took full advantage and started anti-Pakistan propaganda. Congress got the favour of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Dr. Khan Sahib. In the first elections of the province, Congress formed its Ministry with Dr. Khan as its Chief. At that time, the organization of Muslim League was started and due to the efforts of Sardar Aurangzeb Khan, Justice Sajjad Ahmad Jan and Khan Bahadur Assadullah Khan, Muslim League Conference was held at Abbottabad in 1939. This conference became the source of generating the spirit of a freedom movement. Muslim League offices were opened in a number of districts. The rise of the Muslim League weakened the influence of the Congress and they started pressurizing the leaders and workers of the Muslim League. The Muslim League started a civil disobedience movement in the province in 1947. The religious leaders played a very significant role in the movement. The students of Islamia College, Peshawar, and Edward College were on the front-line in projecting the image of Pakistan. The Congress lost its ground and Muslim League became a popular political party. Thus, N.W.F.P became part of Pakistan on 14 August 1947.
Q.8) What are the responsibilities of a citizen of an ideological state?
The Muslim scholars and politicians played an important role in the struggle of a separate state for Muslims. However, Quaid-e-Azam was a leading politician who set the clear concept and ideology of demanding a separate state, which directed the Muslims towards the creation of Pakistan. The philosophy behind the struggle for Pakistan was to lay down the foundation of Islamic State where Muslims should lead their lives in accordance with the principles of Islam. Therefore, on 11 August 1947, while addressing the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, he mentioned the real problems, which had to be solved by the citizens as well as by the state of Pakistan. He further described that all the citizens of Pakistan should actively take part in the task of nation building. Moreover, Quaid-e-Azam proposed a set of guiding principles for the solution of the problems of the newborn state. In his address to the Nation on June 15, 1948, Quaid-e-Azam warned the people of Pakistan about the dangers of provincialism and racialism. He said:
“We are now Pakistanis instead of Balochi, Pathan, Sindhi, Punjabi, and Bengali. Our thinking and actions should look like a Pakistani and that we should be proud of being a Pakistani.” In this perspective, Pakistan’s idea of a state was an ideological one. This ideological state demanded from the people the following responsibilities:
1) Maintenance of Law and Order:
They should try to lead their lives in accordance with the teachings of Islam, which is the basis of the country. This requires enforcement of laws and regulations according to Islamic Sharia. Quaid-e-Azam also said that the first duty of the government is to maintain the law and order and to ensure that the life, property, and religious beliefs of the citizens are fully protected.
2) Islamic Democratic Setup:
They should struggle for providing a democratic set-up, which should be founded on the principles of Islam. The western type democratic system is not suitable for Pakistan. The democratic tradition of freedom for all, reverence, and equality is the only way suitable for living a life.
Every citizen of an ideological state should be loyal and patriotic, ready to sacrifice for the state at the time of the test. The personal interest should not precede the interests of the state.
4) Honest Earning:
The citizens should earn their livelihood through honest means and should never indulge in fraud or deceit.
5) Educated Behavior:
They should behave like an educated and civilized individual. It would be necessary for them to educate themselves because education is the best way for progress and character building.
6) Respect of Law:
They should honor the laws of the state and cooperate with the law enforcing agencies. They should never be violent and refrain from breaking the law.
7) Promotion of National Integrity:
They should participate in the activities, which promote national integrity, honor, and progress. They should help the state against the activities of anti-social elements.
8) Contribution in the Welfare of Society:
The citizens of a state should be hardworking and should contribute to the welfare of the society. They should be ready to help others and should promote Muslim unity and glory of humankind. Moreover, every citizen should extend full cooperation to all the other citizens and should take interest in the welfare of the people.
The citizens of Pakistan have equal rights, therefore, certain responsibilities are also enforced, which would regulate the values and behavioural patterns of an individual. Therefore, maintaining a balance of responsibilities among people is essential for constructing and preserving healthy relationships.
Q.9) Highlight the main points which make the character of Quaid-e-Azam a model for others.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the most eminent personality of the Indian-Muslims’ independent movement. He was not only the greatest leader of the Muslims of South Asia but he also enjoys a position of great honor amongst the leaders of the world due to his characteristics. He was a real political leader and a man of unflinching courage and determination. The qualities of Quaid-e-Azam as a great leader were:
- The Quaid-e-Azam was a staunch Muslim, he had a deep religious insight, but he never exploited religion for political gains.
- He was a man of principle and acted upon whatever he said or promised to do.
- He was an intelligent political leader and combined traits such as diplomacy, courage, sense of responsibility, integrity, forwardness, and dedication to his cause.
- He possessed a very strong character and never compromised on principles especially on the cause of Muslims and Pakistan.
- He was a resolute man of untiring spirit.
- He devoted his life for Pakistan. It was his vision, courage, selfless service, and dedication that he overcame the huge problems o* Pakistan soon after it appeared on the map of the world.
- He was a great supporter and admirer of the younger generation of students and considered them the future arsenal of Islam and Pakistan.
Q.10) Describe the role of Quaid-e-Azam as Governor-General of Pakistan.
Role of Quaid-e-Azam as the first Governor-General of Pakistan:
On 14 August 194, the subcontinent was divided under the Independence Act of 1947, into two sovereign states, India and Pakistan. After the establishment of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam faced a number of problems. The settlement of the refugees from India, distribution of assets between India and Pakistan, canal water dispute, and the Kashmir problem were among the major problems. Quaid-e-Azam was appointed as the first Governor-General of Pakistan. He took some important steps as the head of a new state, which were:
1) National Integrity:
The state of Pakistan required national integrity and close cooperation among the people of the country after the freedom of Pakistan. India had not accepted the existence of Pakistan from the inner heart, and it was the opinion of Hindu leaders that Pakistan would soon collapse and the sub-continent would again be united. However, it was the wisdom of Quaid-e-Azam who created national spirit and sense of patriotism among the people through his dedication, hard work, and love for Pakistan. National unity was developed and Pakistan became a reality.
2) Settlement of Refugees:
After the partition of India, about 6.5 million people migrated to Pakistan. These poor and wounded refugees were a serious problem for the newly created and economically crippled state. This problem was managed excellently under the able guidance of Quaid-e-Azam. He paid immediate attention to the settlement of those refugees. The Quaid-e-Azam Relief Fund was set up. He appealed to people to contribute funds. Quaid-e-Azam personally visited Lahore in October 1947 to look into the problems of refugees who had migrated from East Punjab.
3) Change in the Attitude of Government Officers:
Quaid-e-Azam clearly said that after the creation of Pakistan, the attitude of government servants should not be of rulers but they are public servants. He addressed government servants and said that they should perform their duties as public servants and must perform their duty with justice, honesty and constantly. This will raise their status in the eyes of the public. The advice of Quaid-e-Azam infused a national spirit.
4) Negation to Provincial and Racial Discrimination:
Quaid-e-Azam advised the people to feel pride in calling themselves as Pakistanis and refrain from any kind of racial discrimination and regional prejudice. He toured all the provinces and tried to solve their problems. The armed forces from Waziristan Agency were withdrawn giving a message to the people of the area that they were also an integral part of Pakistan. The different independent states formed an inseparable part of Pakistan and Karachi was declared the Capital of Pakistan.
5) Determination of Guiding Principles of Pakistan’s Economy:
The Quaid-e-Azam was aware of the need for establishing the State Bank to consolidate the economic conditions and develop the national economy. The State Bank was established on 1 July 1948. Quaid-e-Azam said that the western economic system was not suitable for Pakistan and would not bring prosperity to the people of this country. He further added that “We have to evolve a system based on Islamic equality and social justice. By doing this we might introduce a new social order in the world.”
6) Foreign Policy:
Quaid-e-Azam declared that Pakistan Foreign Policy would be based on the principles of mutual respect and understanding with all the countries of the world. He wanted Pakistan to be an honorable state. Pakistan became a member of UNO within one month after independence. Pakistan opened its foreign offices in many countries and relations were established with them on the priority basis. The focal point of Pakistan’s foreign policy was to maintain friendly relations with all countries, especially with the close neighbors and the Muslim countries. Quaid’s role in this regard was the role of a patriotic and sincere person.
7) Advice to the Students:
Quaid-e-Azam held the view that the youth of Pakistan is its future asset. He advised the students to pay due attention to their education. He appreciated the role played by the students in the establishment of Pakistan and said that it is the time for them to refrain from politics.
After the establishment of Pakistan in 1947, Quaid-e-Azam was sick and had become quite exhausted, but he continued working day and night to solve the problems of the people of a newly born country. All his efforts were concentrated on the stability of Pakistan until his last breath. That is why he is called “Father of the Nation.”
Pakistan had to face gigantic problems of administration, social and economic matters soon after its birth. Quaid-e-Azam as the first Governor General of Pakistan, not only made constitutional efforts to run the government of Pakistan but also made the country stable by working hard. He persuaded the people to be patient and took the practical step for the settlement of the issues of the country. In this way, due to the fervor and zeal of the nation and the able guidance of Quaid-e-Azam these heavy odds were overcome within a short period.